Journal of American History

March 2013

Cover image

Volume 99, No. 4

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articles

Patronage and Protest in Kate Brown’s Washington

New laws and constitutional amendments dramatically altered African Americans’ relationship to the federal government after the Civil War. Kate Masur shows that unprecedented opportunities for federal employment opened to African Americans at the same time. Her article follows a remarkable woman named Kate Brown from her work as a restroom attendant in the U.S. Capitol to her protest against discrimination on a local railroad to her marriage and divorce. This history offers a human–scale perspective on African Americans and Republican patronage in the Civil War era and shows how access to government work shaped black life in Washington, D.C., at a pivotal moment. It reveals something of the mechanics of patronage: how African Americans mobilized their connections to prominent whites, and to one another, to create opportunities for advancement. It also allows us to see how public protest was woven into an individual life preoccupied, as well, with making a living, sustaining (and breaking) kinship ties, and creating a safe and satisfying personal existence.

pp. 1047–1071 Read online >

American Enlightenments: Continuity and Renewal

Who is interested in the Enlightenment, let alone the American Enlightenment, today? This is the question raised by Nathalie Caron and the late Naomi Wulf in this in–depth historiographical essay, which won the 2012 David Thelen Award. They review the literature on how the Enlightenment has been addressed in the United States over the past twelve years and on how historians in general have been dealing—or not dealing—with an American Enlightenment. From an outsider’s perspective, the essay provides fresh insight into what turns out to be an ideologically fraught paradigm that has been co-opted across the political spectrum. Their essay does so by incorporating Enlightenment historiography into public debates about American national identity, political culture, and religiosity, as well as secularization and modernity.

pp. 1072–1091 Read online >

The Moment of Transition: State Officials, the Federal Government, and the Formation of American Immigration Policy

The Immigration Act of 1882 was the first general immigration legislation at the national level with exclusion and deportation clauses. By analyzing the act’s enduring reliance on state officials for its implementation, Hidetaka Hirota, in the essay that won the 2012 Louis Pelzer Memorial Award, demonstrates that the federalization of immigration control was a more gradual and contingent process than historians have assumed. He also argues that the roots of the almost–unlimited official power in determining the excludability and deportability of aliens, which characterized federal immigration control from the late nineteenth century onward, lay in the administration of the 1882 act by state officials in New York and Massachusetts.

pp. 1092–1108 Read online >

“Their blood shall not be shed in vain”: American Evangelical Missionaries and the Search for God and Country in Post—World War II Asia

Among the many groups who sought to redefine their identity in the wake of World War II, American evangelicals have only begun to be studied by historians. While the historiography on the revival of evangelicalism in the latter half of the twentieth century has been growing, the crucial years immediately following World War II have been glossed over. During the late 1940s, a moment of contingency and flux in U.S. foreign relations and domestic American society, evangelical missionaries found themselves on the front lines of both the American military occupation abroad and debates at home over the role of evangelicals in public life. Rather than looking only to conflict as the catalyst for the revival of American evangelical activity at midcentury, Sarah Miller-Davenport focuses on evangelicals’ renewed faith in missionary opportunity—one created by an expansionist U.S. state in Asia and the Pacific.

pp. 1109–1132 Read online >

The Cold War Romance of Religious Authenticity: Will Herberg, William F. Buckley Jr., and the Rise of the New Right

The writings of the Jewish thinker Will Herberg, especially his 1955 book Protestant-Catholic-Jew, have been widely regarded as classic statements of American pluralism in post–World War II America. Even so, Herberg’s staunch anticommunism and burgeoning conservatism during those years suggest an alternate reading of his invocations of the “Judeo-Christian tradition.” By examining Herberg’s involvement with the anticommunist, antisecularist Foundation for Religious Action in the Social and Civil Order and his close relationship with the New Right leader William F. Buckley Jr., K. Healan Gaston highlights the fears of secularism and anxieties about religious authenticity that gripped early Cold War America.

pp. 1109–1132 Read online >

Textbooks & Teaching

  • Shared Histories: Teaching outside the Classroom “Box” by Scott E. Casper (pp. 1159–60)
    Read online >

  • Consultants in the Classroom: Student/Teacher Collaborations in Community History by Peter Knupfer (pp. 1161–75)
    Read online >

  • Building People’s Histories: Graduate Student Pedagogy, Undergraduate Education, and Collaboration with Community Partners by Genevieve Carpio, Sharon Luk, and Adam Bush (pp. 1176–88)
    Read online >

  • The Cultural Fieldwork Initiative: Collaboration for Better Education by Christine Woyshner, Andrea Reidell, and Marc Brasof (pp. 1189–99)
    Read online >

Book Reviews

March 2013, Vol. 99 No. 4

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

A
  • Albert and Palladino, eds., The Samuel Gompers Papers, vol. 12: The Last Years, 1922–24, by Andrew Kersten
  • Alexander, An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle before the naacp, by Lisa G. Materson
  • Anderson, Brown, and Rogers, eds., The Payne-Butrick Papers, vols. 1–3, by Rose Stremlau
  • Anderson, Brown, and Rogers, eds., The Payne-Butrick Papers, vols. 4–6, by Rose Stremlau
  • Arena, Driven from New Orleans: How Nonprofits Betray Public Housing and Promote Privatization, by Margaret Gonzalez-Perez
  • Astor, Rebels on the Border: Civil War, Emancipation, and the Reconstruction of Kentucky and Missouri, by Carl Kramer
  • Axtell, ed., The Educational Legacy of Woodrow Wilson: From College to Nation, by Ross A. Kennedy
B
  • Bailey, Race Patriotism: Protest and Print Culture in the ame Church, by Stephen W. Angell
  • Bannet and Manning, eds., Transatlantic Literary Studies, 1660–1830, by Caroline Wigginton
  • Barnett, Mississippi’s American Indians, by James Taylor Carson
  • Batiste, Darkening Mirrors: Imperial Representation in Depression-Era African American Performance, by Marvin McAllister
  • Beeby, ed., Populism in the South Revisited: New Interpretations and New Departures, by T. Adams Upchurch
  • Berman, Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine, by John L. Rudolph
  • Blackwell and Oertel, Frontier Feminist: Clarina Howard Nichols and the Politics of Motherhood, by Rebecca J. Mead
  • Block, The Crucible of Consent: American Child Rearing and the Forging of Liberal Society, by Rebecca de Schweinitz
  • Boag, Re-Dressing America’s Frontier Past, by Michael J. Lansing
  • Bodenhamer, The Revolutionary Constitution, by Keith Whittington
  • Bonastia, Southern Stalemate: Five Years without Public Education in Prince Edward County, Virginia, by Karen Anderson
  • Bönker, Militarism in a Global Age: Naval Ambitions in Germany and the United States before World War I, by Mark Shulman
  • Bonura, Under the Shadow of Napoleon: French Influence on the American Way of Warfare from the War of 1812 to the Outbreak of WWII, by Walter E. Kretchik
  • Brady, War upon the Land: Military Strategy and the Transformation of Southern Landscapes during the American Civil War, by Mikko Saikku
  • Braukman, Communists and Perverts under the Palms: The Johns Committee in Florida, 1956–1965, by David K. Johnson
  • Broadwater, James Madison: A Son of Virginia and a Founder of a Nation, by Jeremy Bailey
  • Brundage, ed., Beyond Blackface: African Americans and the Creation of American Popular Culture, 1890–1930, by Daphne Brooks
C
  • Carney, Ministers and Masters: Methodism, Manhood, and Honor in the Old South, by Anna M. Lawrence
  • Cheng, Astounding Wonder: Imagining Science and Science Fiction in Interwar America, by David Seed
  • Chmielewski, The Spice of Popery: Converging Christianities on an Early American Frontier, by Chris Beneke
  • Corn, User Unfriendly: Consumer Struggles with Personal Technologies, from Clocks and Sewing Machines to Cars and Computers, by Lawrence B. Glickman
  • Crothers, Quakers Living in the Lion’s Mouth: The Society of Friends in Northern Virginia, 1730–1865, by Matthew A. Zimmerman
D
  • Davis, The Battle for the Bs: 1950s Hollywood and the Rebirth of Low-Budget Cinema, by Ron Briley
  • Delbanco, The Abolitionist Imagination, by Ronald G. Walters
  • Delgado, Making the Chinese Mexican: Global Migration, Localism, and Exclusion in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, by Arnoldo De León
  • Deslippe, Protesting Affirmative Action: The Struggle over Equality after the Civil Rights Revolution, by Kevin L. Yuill
  • Dudziak, War Time: An Idea, Its History, Its Consequences, by Richard H. Kohn
E
  • Edwards, Words Made Flesh: Nineteenth-Century Deaf Education and the Growth of Deaf Culture, by Robert M. Buchanan
F
  • Faehmel, College Women in the Nuclear Age: Cultural Literacy and Female Identity, 1940–1960, by Mary Ann Dzuback
  • Faulkner, The School of Hard Knocks: Combat Leadership in the American Expeditionary Forces, by Spencer C. Tucker
  • Feller, Coens, and Moss, eds., The Papers of Andrew Jackson, vol. 8: 1830, by Matthew Warshauer
  • Finkelman and Kennon, eds., Congress and the Crisis of the 1850s, by Williamjames Hull Hoffer
  • Fischer, Fairness and Freedom: A History of Two Open Societies, New Zealand and the United States, by Roberto Rabel
  • Flowers, Into the Pulpit: Southern Baptist Women and Power since World War II, by Mark Newman
  • Fox, Three Worlds of Relief: Race, Immigration, and the American Welfare State from the Progressive Era to the New Deal, by Jonathan M. Hansen
  • Frazer, The Religious Beliefs of America’s Founders: Reason, Revelation, and Revolution, by Mark David Hall
  • Fujino, Samurai among Panthers: Richard Aoki on Race, Resistance, and a Paradoxical Life, by William Wei
G
  • Gabaccia, Foreign Relations: American Immigration in Global Perspective, by Orm øverland
  • Gardner, The Rise and Fall of Early American Magazine Culture: The History of Communication, by Jonathan Daniel Wells
  • Geiger, Subverting Exclusion: Transpacific Encounters with Race, Caste, and Borders, 1885–1928, by Paul R. Spickard
  • Gidlow, ed., Obama, Clinton, Palin: Making History in Election 2008, by Angie Maxwell
  • Goldstein, Creating Consumers: Home Economists in Twentieth-Century America, by Jessamyn Neuhaus
  • Goldstein, Poverty in Common: The Politics of Community Action during the American Century, by Jennifer Frost
  • Gould, Among the Powers of the Earth: The American Revolution and the Making of a New World Empire, by J. C. A. Stagg
  • Guelzo, Fateful Lightning: A New History of the Civil War and Reconstruction, by Nicole Etcheson
  • Guevarra, Becoming Mexipino: Multiethnic Identities and Communities in San Diego, by David Fitzgerald
  • Gugliotta, Freedom’s Cap: The United States Capitol and the Coming of the Civil War, by Alan H. Lessoff
  • Gurman, The Dissent Papers: The Voices of Diplomats in the Cold War and Beyond, by Andrew Preston
  • Guthrie-Shimizu, Transpacific Field of Dreams: How Baseball Linked the United States and Japan in Peace and War, by Michael Ezra
  • Gutzman, James Madison and the Making of America, by Jeremy Bailey
H
  • Harvey, Moses, Jesus, and the Trickster in the Evangelical South, by Curtis J. Evans
  • Higashida, Black Internationalist Feminism: Women Writers of the Black Left, 1945–1995, by Dayo F. Gore
  • Hill and Rabig, eds., The Business of Black Power: Community Development, Capitalism, and Corporate Responsibility in Postwar America, by John N. Ingham
  • Holzer, Emancipating Lincoln: The Proclamation in Text, Context, and Memory, by Keith A. Erekson
  • Horne, Negro Comrades of the Crown: African Americans and the British Empire Fight the U.S. before Emancipation, by Rachel Hope Cleves
  • Horowitz, Consuming Pleasures: Intellectuals and Popular Culture in the Postwar World, by Robert Vanderlan
  • Hutchison, Apples and Ashes: Literature, Nationalism, and the Confederate States of America, by Jason Phillips
I
  • Iannini, Fatal Revolutions: Natural History, West Indian Slavery, and the Routes of American Literature, by Vincent Carretta
  • Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football, by J. Samuel Walker
  • Inscoe, Writing the South through the Self: Explorations in Southern Autobiography, by McKay Jenkins
J
  • Jacobs, The Universe Unraveling: American Foreign Policy in Cold War Laos, by James M. Carter
  • Jacobson and Wadsworth, eds., Faith and Race in American Political Life, by Gaines M. Foster
  • Jelks, Benjamin Elijah Mays, Schoolmaster of the Movement: A Biography, by Troy Jackson
  • Jennison, Cultivating Race: The Expansion of Slavery in Georgia, 1750–1860, by Daina Ramey Berry
  • Jentz and Schneirov, Chicago in the Age of Capital: Class, Politics, and Democracy during the Civil War and Reconstruction, by James J. Connolly
  • Jewett, ed., The Battlefield and Beyond: Essays on the American Civil War, by Aaron Astor
K
  • Kalic, U.S. Presidents and the Militarization of Space, 1946–1967, by Everett Dolman
  • Kim, The Quest for Statehood: Korean Immigrant Nationalism and U.S. Sovereignty, 1905–45, by William Stueck
  • Knarr, Uruguay and the United States, 1903–1929: Diplomacy in the Progressive Era, by Michael Patrick Cullinane
  • Kreider, Stagg, Johnson, Colony, and Harbury, eds., The Papers of James Madison, Presidential Series, vol. 7: 25 October 1813–30 June 1814, by Kevin R. C. Gutzman
L
  • Lamb, Conspiracy of Silence: Sportswriters and the Long Campaign to Desegregate Baseball, by Rebecca Alpert
  • Lantzer, Mainline Christianity: The Past and Future of America’s Majority Faith, by Wade Clark Roof
  • Leavelle, The Catholic Calumet: Colonial Conversions in French and Indian North America, by Justin M. Carroll
  • LeMaster, Brothers Born of One Mother: British–Native American Relations in the Colonial Southeast, by Julie Anne Sweet
  • Lerner, One for the Road: Drunk Driving since 1900, by Dan Malleck
  • Linebaugh, The Springfield Gas Machine: Illuminating Industry and Leisure, 1860s–1920s, by Paul B. Israel
  • Ling, Chinese Chicago: Race, Transnational Migration, and Community since 1870, by Charlotte Brooks
  • Luff, Commonsense Anticommunism: Labor and Civil Liberties between the World Wars, by Robert H. Zieger
  • Lyon, Prisons and Patriots: Japanese American Wartime Citizenship, Civil Disobedience, and Historical Memory, by Alice Yang
M
  • Marshall, Manhood Enslaved: Bondmen in Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century New Jersey, by Joanne Pope Melish
  • Marten, ed., Children and Youth during the Civil War Era, by Lucia McMahon
  • Matt, Homesickness: An American History, by Kathryn Lofton
  • Matthews, The Golden State in the Civil War: Thomas Starr King, the Republican Party, and the Birth of Modern California, by Stacey Smith
  • McDonald, ed., Light and Liberty: Thomas Jefferson and the Power of Knowledge, by Daniel L. Dreisbach
  • McLeod, Daughter of the Empire State: The Life of Judge Jane Bolin, by Kenneth W. Mack
  • Miller, Two Americans: Truman, Eisenhower, and a Dangerous World, by Meena Bose
  • Miller, The Religious Roots of the First Amendment: Dissenting Protestants and the Separation of Church and State, by Mark D. McGarvie
  • Molineux, Faces of Perfect Ebony: Encountering Atlantic Slavery in Imperial Britain, by Kenneth Morgan
  • Muehlenbeck, Betting on the Africans: John F. Kennedy’s Courting of African Nationalist Leaders, by Larry Grubbs
  • Musgrove, Rumor, Repression, and Racial Politics: How the Harassment of Black Elected Officials Shaped Post–Civil Rights America, by Hanes Walton Jr.
N
  • Nathans, To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker, by Christie Anne Farnham
  • Newfont, Blue Ridge Commons: Environmental Activism and Forest History in Western North Carolina, by Duncan Maysilles
  • Nicholson, The Kentucky Derby: How the Run for the Roses Became America’s Premier Sporting Event, by Steven A. Riess
  • Nickerson, Mothers of Conservatism: Women and the Postwar Right, by Mary C. Brennan
  • Noll, American Madness: The Rise and Fall of Dementia Praecox, by Andrew T. Scull
  • November, Biomedical Computing: Digitizing Life in the United States, by Cyrus C. M. Mody
O
  • Onuf and Cole, eds., Thomas Jefferson, the Classical World, and Early America, by Michele Valerie Ronnick
  • Ostendorf, Sounds American: National Identity and the Music Cultures of the Lower Mississippi River Valley, 1800–1860, by Thomas Ruys Smith
P
  • Pagnamenta, Prairie Fever: British Aristocrats in the American West, 1830–1890, by William E. Van Vugt
  • Parmar, Foundations of the American Century: The Ford, Carnegie, and Rockefeller Foundations in the Rise of American Power, by Nils Gilman
  • Phillips, War! What is It Good For? Black Freedom Struggles and the U.S. Military from World War II to Iraq, by Christopher S. Parker
  • Plank, John Woolman’s Path to the Peaceable Kingdom: A Quaker in the British Empire, by Jean Soderlund
  • Poole, Monsters in America: Our Historical Obsession with the Hideous and the Haunting, by Leonard Cassuto
  • Porterfield, Conceived in Doubt: Religion and Politics in the New American Nation, by David F. Holland
  • Potter and Romano, eds., Doing Recent History: On Privacy, Copyright, Video Games, Institutional Review Boards, Activist Scholarship, and History That Talks Back, by Julian Carter
  • Powell, The Accidental City: Improvising New Orleans, by Scott P. Marler
  • Preston, Sword of the Spirit, Shield of Faith: Religion in American War and Diplomacy, by G. Kurt Piehler
R
  • Rana, The Two Faces of American Freedom, by James T. Kloppenberg
  • Ratner-Rosenhagen, American Nietzsche: A History of an Icon and His Ideas, by James Livingston
  • Reardon, With a Sword in One Hand and Jomini in the Other: The Problem of Military Thought in the Civil War North, by Kenneth W. Noe
  • Retman, Real Folks: Race and Genre in the Great Depression, by Anne Elizabeth Carroll
  • Risse, Plague, Fear, and Politics in San Francisco’s Chinatown, by Alexandra Minna Stern
  • Rivett, The Science of the Soul in Colonial New England, by Neil Kamil
  • Roberts, America’s First Great Depression: Economic Crisis and Political Disorder after the Panic of 1837, by Tom Downey
  • Robertson, The Malthusian Moment: Global Population Growth and the Birth of American Environmentalism, by Brooks Flippen
  • Rockoff, America’s Economic Way of War: War and the U.S. Economy from the Spanish-American War to the Persian Gulf War, by Alexander J. Field
  • Russo and Russo, Planting an Empire: The Early Chesapeake in British North America, by Virginia DeJohn Anderson
  • Rust, Before the Quagmire: American Intervention in Laos, 1954–1961, by Kenton Clymer
S
  • Schlichting, Grand Central’s Engineer: William J. Wilgus and the Planning of Modern Manhattan, by Clifton Hood
  • Shah, Stranger Intimacy: Contesting Race, Sexuality, and the Law in the North American West, by Andrea Geiger
  • Shugerman, The People’s Courts: Pursuing Judicial Independence in America, by Artemus Ward
  • Shuler, Blood and Bone: Truth and Reconciliation in a Southern Town, by Timothy J. Minchin
  • Smith, Hippies, Indians, and the Fight for Red Power, by Bradley G. Shreve
  • Söderlind and Carson, eds., American Exceptionalisms: From Winthrop to Winfrey, by Godfrey Hodgson
  • Solovey and Cravens, eds., Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature, by David Paul Haney
  • Spivey, “If You Were Only White”: The Life of Leroy “Satchel” Paige, by Thomas Aiello
  • Stark, Behind Closed Doors: irbs and the Making of Ethical Research, by Alice D. Dreger
  • Steedman, Jim Crow Citizenship: Liberalism and the Southern Defense of Racial Hierarchy, by Edward Frantz
  • Steffes, School, Society, and State: A New Education to Govern Modern America, 1890–1940, by William J. Reese
  • Sternhell, Routes of War: The World of Movement in the Confederate South, by Carol Sheriff
  • Stone, Gay Rights at the Ballot Box, by Lane Fenrich
T
  • Tarter and Bell, eds., Buried Lives: Incarcerated in Early America, by Jennifer Graber
  • Thomas, Deluxe Jim Crow: Civil Rights and American Health Policy, 1935–1954, by Vanessa Northington Gamble
  • Tyrrell, Reforming the World: The Creation of America’s Moral Empire, by Lisa Joy Pruitt
W
  • Walker, acc Basketball: The Story of Rivalries, Traditions, and Scandals of the First Two Decades of the Atlantic Coast Conference, by Gregory J. Kaliss
  • Weiner, Madison’s Metronome: The Constitution, Majority Rule, and the Tempo of American Politics, by David J. Siemers
  • White, Law in American History, vol. 1: From the Colonial Years through the Civil War, by Andrew E. Taslitz
  • Winship, Godly Republicanism: Puritans, Pilgrims, and a City on a Hill, by Gerald F. Moran
  • Wise, William Alexander Percy: The Curious Life of a Mississippi Planter and Sexual Freethinker, by Colin R. Johnson
  • Witgen, An Infinity of Nations: How the Native New World Shaped Early North America, by Stephen Warren
  • Wolf, Almost Free: A Story about Family and Race in Antebellum Virginia, by Wilma King
Y
  • Young Armstead, Freedom’s Gardener: James F. Brown, Horticulture, and the Hudson Valley in Antebellum America, by Sharon A. Roger Hepburn
Z
  • Zackodnik, Press, Platform, Pulpit: Black Feminist Publics in the Era of Reform, by Kristin Waters
  • Zakim and Kornblith, eds., Capitalism Takes Command: The Social Transformation of Nineteenth-Century America, by John Majewski
  • Zunz, Philanthropy in America: A History, by David C. Hammack

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cover image

On the cover:

To evade the pauper exclusion provision in American immigration law, agents of the British government accompanying emigrants insisted, by providing them with cash and clothes upon arrival, that the emigrants possessed property and therefore were not paupers. In the image, the barefoot boy sent from a workhouse in County Kerry, with a bag and a railroad ticket to the U.S. interior, claims: “Who says I’m a pauper, or will be a burden upon the country?” Reprinted from “Assisted Immigrant from Kerry Workhouse,” Harper’s Weekly, July 7, 1883, p. 432.
(See Hidetaka Hirota, “The Moment of Transition: State Officials, the Federal Government, and the Formation of American Immigration Policy,” p. 1092.)

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