Journal of American History


The Northern United States and the Genesis of Racial Lynching: The Lynching of African Americans in the Civil War Era

While scholars have composed a rich body of work on the lynching of African Americans in the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century South, Michael J. Pfeifer argues that the study of racial lynching in the North in the early 1860s helps redress key gaps in the historiography of lynching. Examining wartime racial lynchings in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1861 and Newburgh, New York, in 1863, Pfeifer explores how Irish Catholic ethnic solidarity in these communities was as pivotal as a developing concept of “whiteness.” Despite important differences in contexts, the practice and ideology of Northern Irish paralleled, and indeed slightly anticipated, that of white Southerners who later seized upon lynching as a means of rejecting the Reconstruction state’s insistence on color-blind law. (pp. 621–35) Read online >

“Those by Whose Side We Have Labored”: American Jewish Women and the Peace Movement between the Wars

Participating enthusiastically in American public life was one of the ways that turn-of- the-century American Jewish women achieved a measure of integration. Melissa R. Klapper traces the understudied social activism of American Jewish women in the peace movement between the world wars, exploring the multiple motivations for their participation and analyzing its impact on the early twentieth-century women’s movement. Klapper argues that despite Jewish women’s investment in the movement, Nazism and anti-Semitism at home and abroad before World War II and the apparent silence of their colleagues in the peace movement led even the most passionate female Jewish peace activists to reconsider their commitments. In the face of these challenges, Klapper explains, these female activists ultimately redirected their political ideals toward Jewish identity and survival rather than sisterhood or universal peace. (pp. 636–58) Read online >

From Monopoly to Intellectual Property: Music Piracy and the Remaking of American Copyright, 1909—1971

Courtesy Music Library and Sound Recordings Archive, Bowling Green State University.

Since the 1970s critics have decried the expansion of intellectual property rights, while supporters of copyright and patent reform have argued that the protection of “information” is vital for the U.S. economy. Alex S. Cummings explores the reasons for this tension, showing how struggles over music piracy paved the way for stronger regulation of intellectual property. Lawmakers in the Progressive Era denied copyright protection for sound recordings, leaving pirates to challenge American sensibilities about monopoly, music, and the public interest. Through legal and legislative battles, a new conception gradually emerged of copyright as a safeguard for capital investment rather than an incentive for artist creation, buttressing claims about the economic needs of an “information society” in the late twentieth century. (pp. 659–81) Read online >

“That’s the Way I’ve Always Heard It Should Be”: Baby Boomers, 1970s Singer-Songwriters, and Romantic Relationships

A series of “revolutions” rocked American society during the 1960s, but Judy Kutulas argues that it was only during the 1970s that these changes really found their way into Americans’ daily lives. The sexual revolution, the counterculture, and the women’s movement altered American attitudes about love, romance, and marriage. Along with undermining social values, sixties revolutions also undermined traditional authority sources. Consequently, young Americans turned to their peers and their popular culture as they began shaping their adult lives. Kutulas explores the ways a particular kind of popular music spoke to youthful trendsetters about marriage, commitment, sexuality, and monogamy and, in particular, helped legitimate relationships, rather than marriage, as the goal of heterosexual interactions. (pp. 682–702) Read online >

Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline, and Transformation in Postwar American History

© Bettman/Corbis.

By the close of the twentieth century the United States had incarcerated more people than any other country in the world, and the nation’s social, economic, and political institutions had become inexorably intertwined with the practice of punishment. Historians, however, have not yet considered what impact the rise of a massive carceral state might have had on the evolution of the later postwar period. Heather Ann Thompson argues that such an examination of the later twentieth century is crucial if scholars are to understand fully the dramatic transformations that occurred after the civil rights sixties, including the origins of urban crisis, the decline of the American labor movement, and the rise of the Right. (pp. 703–58) Read online >

Listen to an interview with Heather Ann Thompson about this article in the JAH Podcast.

Exhibition Reviews

Photo by John Strader. Courtesy Montpelier.
  • “Introduction”, by Benjamin Filene and Brian Horrigan (pp. 735) Read online >
  • The African Burial Ground National Monument, by Brian Purnell (pp. 736) Read online >
  • Montpelier, by Phylliss K. Leffler (pp. 740) Read online >
  • Coming to California, by Gray Brechin (pp. 746) Read online >
  • “Forgotten Gateway: Coming to America through Galveston Island”, by Carlos Kevin Blanton (pp. 750) Read online >
  • International Civil Rights Center and Museum, by Blair L. M. Kelley (pp. 752) Read online >
  • “Minnesota’s Greatest Generation,” by Kevin P. Murphy (pp. 757) Read online >

Book Reviews

Dec. 2010, Vol. 97 No. 3

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Abel, Signs of the Times: The Visual Politics of Jim Crow, by Christopher P. Lehman
  • Anderson, Little Rock: Race and Resistance at Central High School, by Sondra Gordy
  • Ash, The Black Experience in the Civil War South, by Ervin L. Jordan Jr.
  • Balint, Running Commentary: The Contentious Magazine That Transformed the Jewish Left into the Neoconservative Right, by John Ehrman
  • Bauer, We Were All Like Migrant Workers Here: Work, Community, and Memory on California’s Round Valley Reservation, 1850–1941, by Robert L. Bee
  • Baughman, Same Time, Same Station: Creating American Television, 1948–1961, by Peter C. Rollins
  • Baum and Harris, eds., Racially Writing the Republic: Racists, Race Rebels, and Transformations of American Identity, by Shani Mott
  • Bell, Mosquito Soldiers: Malaria, Yellow Fever, and the Course of the American Civil War, by Deanne Nuwer
  • Bender, American Abyss: Savagery and Civilization in the Age of Industry, by Jonathan Rees
  • Bockstoce, Furs and Frontiers in the Far North: The Contest among Native and Foreign Nations for the Bering Strait Fur Trade, by Stephen Haycox
  • Botham, Almighty God Created the Races: Christianity, Interracial Marriage, and American Law, by Zebulon Miletsky
  • Brier, A Novel Marketplace: Mass Culture, the Book Trade, and Postwar American Fiction, by Joan Shelley Rubin
  • Brown, Foul Bodies: Cleanliness in Early America, by Janet Moore Lindman
  • Budreau, Bodies of War: World War I and the Politics of Commemoration in America, 1919–1933, by Robert H. Zieger
  • Burns, Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right, by Catherine E. Rymph
  • Carruthers, Cold War Captives: Imprisonment, Escape, and Brainwashing, by Laura A. Belmonte
  • Cassanello and Davis, eds., Migration and the Transformation of the Southern Workplace since 1945, by Tami J. Friedman
  • Castiglia, Interior States: Institutional Consciousness and the Inner Life of Democracy in the Antebellum United States, by Michael Drexler
  • Chang, The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832–1929, by Rose Stremlau
  • Chang, Citizens of a Christian Nation: Evangelical Missions and the Problem of Race in the Nineteenth Century, by Paul Harvey
  • Chappell, The War on Welfare: Family, Poverty, and Politics in Modern America, by Felicia Ann Kornbluh
  • Charron, Freedom’s Teacher: The Life of Septima Clark, by R. Scott Baker
  • Clavin, Toussaint Louverture and the American Civil War: The Promise and Peril of a Second Haitian Revolution, by Christopher Dixon
  • Cohodas, Princess Noire: The Tumultuous Reign of Nina Simone, by Ruth Feldstein
  • Damrosch, Tocqueville’s Discovery of America, by James T. Schleifer
  • Davis, More Perfect Unions: The American Search for Marital Bliss, by Norma Basch
  • Demas, Integrating the Gridiron: Black Civil Rights and American College Football, by Kurt Edward Kemper
  • Dickstein, Dancing in the Dark: A Cultural History of the Great Depression, by Lary L. May
  • Dowdy, Crusades for Freedom: Memphis and the Political Transformation of the American South, by Elizabeth Gritter
  • Dreisbach, Hall, and Morrison, eds., The Forgotten Founders on Religion and Public Life, by Jerome Dean Mahaffey
  • Dusinberre, Strategies for Survival: Recollections of Bondage in Antebellum Virginia, by Lydia Plath
  • Ekbladh, The Great American Mission: Modernization and the Construction of an American World, by John Kane
  • Elias, The Empire Strikes Out: How Baseball Sold U.S. Foreign Policy and Promoted the American Way Abroad, by Steven R. Bullock
  • Engelman, Friendlyvision: Fred Friendly and the Rise and Fall of Television Journalism, by Michael Curtin
  • Ernest, Chaotic Justice: Rethinking African American Literary History, by Laura Doyle
  • Escott, The Confederacy: The Slaveholder’s Failed Venture, by William C. Davis
  • Finstuen, Original Sin and Everyday Protestants: The Theology of Reinhold Niebuhr, Billy Graham, and Paul Tillich in an Age of Anxiety, by Randall Balmer
  • Foley, Quest for Equality: The Failed Promise of Black-Brown Solidarity, by Kevin R. Johnson
  • Ford, Settler Sovereignty: Jurisdiction and Indigenous People in America and Australia, 1788–1836, by Alan Taylor
  • Fur, A Nation of Women: Gender and Colonial Encounters among the Delaware Indians, by Rebecca Kugel
  • Gallay, ed., Indian Slavery in Colonial America, by Tiya Miles
  • Gassan, The Birth of American Tourism: New York, the Hudson Valley, and American Culture, 1790–1830, by Thomas Chambers
  • GhaneaBassiri, A History of Islam in America: From the New World to the New World Order, by Edward E. Curtis IV
  • Gilbert, Whose Fair? Experience, Memory, and the History of the Great St. Louis Exposition, by Matthew Bokovoy
  • Gill, Beauty Shop Politics: African American Women’s Activism in the Beauty Industry, by Susannah Walker
  • Glickman, Buying Power: A History of Consumer Activism in America, by Daniel Scroop
  • Gooding-Williams, In the Shadow of Du Bois: Afro-Modern Political Thought in America, by Edward J. Blum
  • Gore, Theoharis, and Woodard, eds., Want to Start a Revolution? Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle, by Katherine Mellen Charron
  • Gould, The William Howard Taft Presidency, by Edward Frantz
  • Green, Politics and America in Crisis: The Coming of the Civil War, by David F. Ericson
  • Grieve, The Federal Art Project and the Creation of Middlebrow Culture, by Casey N. Blake
  • Grumet, The Munsee Indians: A History, by Donna Merwick
  • Harbutt, Yalta 1945: Europe and America at the Crossroads, by Manfred Jonas
  • Harris, The Hanging of Thomas Jeremiah: A Free Black Man’s Encounter with Liberty, by Julie Winch
  • Hayden, Negotiating in the Press: American Journalism and Diplomacy, 1918–1919, by Stephen Ponder
  • Hirsch, Willie Mays: The Life, the Legend, by David L. Porter
  • Hodges, David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City, by Anne M. Boylan
  • Hsieh, West Pointers and the Civil War: The Old Army in War and Peace, by Robert M. S. McDonald
  • Irons, Reconstituting Whiteness: The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, by Chris Myers Asch
  • James, ed., Picture This: World War I Posters and Visual Culture, by David Welky
  • Johns, Vietnam’s Second Front: Domestic Politics, the Republican Party, and the War, by Keith L. Nelson
  • Joseph, Dark Days, Bright Nights: From Black Power to Barack Obama, by Simon Hall
  • Keiner, The Oyster Question: Scientists, Watermen, and the Maryland Chesapeake Bay since 1880, by Tycho de Boer
  • Kennedy, Born Southern: Childbirth, Motherhood, and Social Networks in the Old South, by Angela Boswell
  • Klepp, Revolutionary Conceptions: Women, Fertility, and Family Limitation in America, 1760–1820, by Clare A. Lyons
  • Klimke, The Other Alliance: Student Protest in West Germany and the United States in the Global Sixties, by Timothy S. Brown
  • Knight, Working the Diaspora: The Impact of African Labor on the Anglo-American World, 1650–1850, by Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
  • Kraft, Vegas at Odds: Labor Conflict in a Leisure Economy, 1960–1985, by Rosanne Currarino
  • LaCroix, The Ideological Origins of American Federalism, by David J. Siemers
  • Landers, Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions, by Shirley Elizabeth Thompson
  • Lassiter and Crespino, eds., The Myth of Southern Exceptionalism, by Larry J. Griffin
  • Lentz-Smith, Freedom Struggles: African Americans and World War I, by Lauren Rebecca Sklaroff
  • Lester, On Floods and Photo Ops: How Herbert Hoover and George W. Bush Exploited Catastrophes, by Robert Hariman
  • Levin, Bohemia in America, 1858–1920, by Sarah Wadsworth
  • Levy, Town Born: The Political Economy of New England from Its Founding to the Revolution, by T. H. Breen
  • Lewis, Trailing Clouds of Glory: Zachary Taylor’s Mexican War Campaign and His Emerging Civil War Leaders, by James M. McCaffrey
  • Loving, Mark Twain: The Adventures of Samuel L. Clemens, by Forrest G. Robinson
  • Lucier, Scientists and Swindlers: Consulting on Coal and Oil in America, 1820–1890, by James C. Williams
  • Luskey, On the Make: Clerks and the Quest for Capital in Nineteenth-Century America, by Michael Zakim
  • Malone, Waterpower in Lowell: Engineering and Industry in Nineteenth-Century America, by Ted Steinberg
  • Manegold, Ten Hills Farm: The Forgotten History of Slavery in the North, by Joanne Pope Melish
  • Mangun, A Force for Change: Beatrice Morrow Cannady and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Oregon, 1912–1936, by Albert S. Broussard
  • Maroukis, The Peyote Road: Religious Freedom and the Native American Church, by Christopher Vecsey
  • Martin, Live All You Can: Alexander Joy Cartwright and the Invention of Modern Baseball, by Steven A. Riess
  • Mattson, “What the Heck Are You Up To Mr. President?”: Jimmy Carter, America’s “Malaise,” and the Speech That Should Have Changed the Country, by David Greenberg
  • Maunula, Guten Tag, Y’all: Globalization and the South Carolina Piedmont, 1950–2000, by Wanda Rushing
  • May, America and the Pill: A History of Promise, Peril, and Liberation, by Rebecca M. Kluchin
  • McCartin, Prayers of the Faithful: The Shifting Spiritual Life of American Catholics, by Margaret M. McGuinness
  • McCurry, Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South, by Paul D. Escott
  • Milkis, Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive Party, and the Transformation of American Democracy, by Richard A. Greenwald
  • Miller, Hope in a Scattering Time: A Life of Christopher Lasch, by Richard H. Pells
  • Milne, America’s Rasputin: Walt Rostow and the Vietnam War, by Edwin Anton Martini III
  • Mirra, The Admirable Radical: Staughton Lynd and Cold War Dissent, 1945–1970, by Cristina Scatamacchia
  • Moats, Celebrating the Republic: Presidential Ceremony and Popular Sovereignty from Washington to Monroe, by Christopher J. Young
  • Monahan and Neidel-Greenlee, A Few Good Women: America’s Military Women from World War I to the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, by Kara D. Vuic
  • Morgan, Valley of Death: The Tragedy at Dien Bien Phu That Led America into the Vietnam War, by Kathryn C. Statler
  • Moss, Schooling Citizens: The Struggle for African American Education in Antebellum America, by Christopher M. Span
  • Muhammad, The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America, by William P. Jones
  • Nucciarone, Alexander Cartwright: The Life behind the Baseball Legend, by Steven A. Riess
  • Ondaatje, Black Conservative Intellectuals in Modern America, by Elwood D. Watson
  • Opal, Beyond the Farm: National Ambitions in Rural New England, by Robert A. Gross
  • Ortiz, Beyond the Bonus March and gi Bill: How Veteran Politics Shaped the New Deal Era, by Jennifer E. Brooks
  • Parker, Articulating Rights: Nineteenth-Century American Women on Race, Reform, and the State, by Louise Michele Newman
  • Perdue, Race and the Atlanta Cotton States Exposition of 1895, by Georgina Hickey
  • Perman, Pursuit of Unity: A Political History of the American South, by William A. Link
  • Pierce, Striking with the Ballot: Ohio Labor and the Populist Party, by Matthew Hild
  • Pommersheim, Broken Landscape: Indians, Indian Tribes, and the Constitution, by Mark R. Scherer
  • Pustz, Voices from the Back Stairs: Interpreting Servants’ Lives at Historic House Museums, by Briann G. Greenfield
  • Rabe, John F. Kennedy: World Leader, by April R. Summitt
  • Ramold, Baring the Iron Hand: Discipline in the Union Army, by Christian G. Samito
  • Randall, From a Far Country: Camisards and Huguenots in the Atlantic World, by Paula Wheeler Carlo
  • Ratner, Kaufman, and Teeter, Paradoxes of Prosperity: Wealth-Seeking versus Christian Values in Pre–Civil War America, by Martha Saxton
  • Rogers, Making Capitalism Safe: Work Safety and Health Regulation in America, 1880–1940, by John E. Murray
  • Ryan, The World of Thomas Jeremiah: Charles Town on the Eve of the American Revolution, by Cynthia M. Kennedy
  • Samito, Becoming American under Fire: Irish Americans, African Americans, and the Politics of Citizenship during the Civil War Era, by Ben Wynne
  • Savran, Highbrow/Lowdown: Theater, Jazz, and the Making of the New Middle Class, by Marlis Schweitzer
  • Schmidt, Industrial Violence and the Legal Origins of Child Labor, by James L. Flannery
  • Schmitt, President of the Other America: Robert Kennedy and the Politics of Poverty, by Joseph A. Palermo
  • Schwab, Guantánamo, usa: The Untold History of America’s Cuban Outpost, by Josef Opatrny
  • Shalev, Rome Reborn on Western Shores: Historical Imagination and the Creation of the American Republic, by Michele Valerie Ronnick
  • Shaw, Now Is the Time! Detroit Black Politics and Grassroots Activism, by Karen Miller
  • Shellum, Black Officer in a Buffalo Soldier Regiment: The Military Career of Charles Young, by Bruce Alden Glasrud
  • Sides, Erotic City: Sexual Revolutions and the Making of Modern San Francisco, by Randy D. McBee
  • Simon, Everything but the Coffee: Learning about America from Starbucks, by Lawrence B. Glickman
  • Simonson, Refiguring Mass Communication: A History, by Richard Butsch
  • Smith, To Serve the Living: Funeral Directors and the African American Way of Death, by J. M. Floyd-Thomas
  • Smith-Rosenberg, This Violent Empire: The Birth of an American National Identity, by Duchess Harris
  • Spear, Race, Sex, and Social Order in Early New Orleans, by Nathalie Dessens
  • Springer, America’s Captives: Treatment of pows from the Revolutionary War to the War on Terror, by Susan Carruthers
  • Spruill, Littlefield, and Johnson, eds., South Carolina Women: Their Lives and Times, vol. 2, by Arlin C. Migliazzo
  • Srole, Transcribing Class and Gender: Masculinity and Femininity in Nineteenth-Century Courts and Offices, by Ileen A. DeVault
  • Stanley, Kennedy vs. Carter: The 1980 Battle for the Democratic Party’s Soul, by Gregory W. Bush
  • Stern, Mary Chesnut’s Civil War Epic, by Melissa Mentzer
  • Stott, Jolly Fellows: Male Milieus in Nineteenth-Century America, by Joshua R. Greenberg
  • Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North, by Rhonda Y. Williams
  • Taylor, The Environment and the People in American Cities, 1600s–1900s: Disorder, Inequality, and Social Change, by Harold L. Platt
  • Tuchinsky, Horace Greeley’s New-York Tribune: Civil War–Era Socialism and the Crisis of Free Labor, by Gregory Borchard
  • Urofsky, Louis D. Brandeis: A Life, by Edward A. Purcell Jr.
  • Vaïsse, trans. by Goldhammer, Neoconservatism: The Biography of a Movement, by Michael Kimmage
  • van Minnen and Hilton, eds., Political Repression in U.S. History, by Robert Justin Goldstein
  • Verney and Sartain, eds., Long Is the Way and Hard: One Hundred Years of the naacp, by Manfred Berg
  • von Bothmer, Framing the Sixties: The Use and Abuse of a Decade from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush, by Alexander Bloom
  • Walsh, Motives of Honor, Pleasure, and Profit: Plantation Management in the Colonial Chesapeake, 1607–1763, by Barry Levy
  • Wells and Phipps, eds., Entering the Fray: Gender, Politics, and Culture in the New South, by Joan Marie Johnson
  • Wheen, Strange Days Indeed: The 1970s, the Golden Age of Paranoia, by Edward D. Berkowitz
  • White, Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic, by Tim Matthewson
  • Williams, In Search of the Talented Tenth: Howard University Public Intellectuals and the Dilemmas of Race, 1926–1970, by Pero Gaglo Dagbovie
  • Winsboro, ed., Old South, New South, or Down South? Florida and the Modern Civil Rights Movement, by Stephanie Y. Evans
  • Woodward, Prospero’s America: John Winthrop Jr., Alchemy, and the Creation of New England Culture, 1606–1676, by Reiner Smolinski
  • Wunder and Kinbacher, eds., Reconfigurations of Native North America: An Anthology of New Perspectives, by Tracy Neal Leavelle
  • Zelizer, Arsenal of Democracy: The Politics of National Security—From World War II to the War on Terrorism, by Meena Bose

Movie Reviews

  • The National Parks: America’s Best Idea, by Paul S. Sutter (pp. 892—97) Read online >
  • The Pacific, by Douglas A. Cunningham (pp. 897—900) Read online >
  • Into the Deep: America, Whaling, and the World, by Dane A. Morrison (pp. 900—03) Read online >
  • Dolley Madison, by Jane Kamensky (pp. 903—04) Read online >
  • The Bombing of Germany, by Richard B. Frank (pp. 904–06) Read online >
  • Power for the Parkinsons; and The Parkinsons, by James I. Deutsch (pp. 906–07) Read online >
  • Studio One Anthology, by Kathy M. Newman (pp. 907–09) Read online >
  • My Lai, by Susan Carruthers (pp. 909–11) Read online >
  • Black Wave—The Legacy of the Exxon Valdez, by Richard P. Horwitz (pp. 911–15) Read online >

Web Site Reviews

Web Site reviews are available without a subscription.

Courtesy Spokesman-Review.
  • Northern Visions of Race, Region, and Reform in the Press and Letters of Freedmen and Freedmen’s Treachers in the Civil War Era, by Lyde Cullen Sizer (pp. 915–16) Read online >
  • Digital Harlem: Everyday Life, 1915’1930; and Henry Hudson 400: Celebrating the History of Hudson, Amsterdam, and New York, by Todd Presner (pp. 916–18) Read online >
  • Voices of Civil Rights; and Civil Rights Oral History Interviews: Spokane, Washington, by Jason Sokol (pp. 918–21) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

View “Recent Scholarship” listing online >

Recent Scholarship is available as a searchable database, Recent Scholarship Online >

cover image

On the cover:

This bootleg compilation, Benny Goodman and His Quartet, volume two, was released in the early 1950s by the New Jersey–based Jolly Roger label, a name wryly suggestive the label’s pirating activities. Courtesy Music Library and Sound Recording Archive, Bowling Green State University. Alex S. Cummings, “From Monopoly to Intellectual Property: Music Piracy and the Remaking of American Copyright, 1909–1971,” p. 659.

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