Journal of American History

articles

Violence, Ethnicity, and Human Remains during the Second Seminole War

Cameron B. Strang uses violence to explore the interconnected histories of knowledge production, imperial expansion, and identity formation in the American borderlands. Florida natives and whites decapitated, scalped, and disinterred each other’s bodies throughout the Second Seminole War (1835—1842), and both groups saw such desecra-tions as profane offenses that warranted equally brutal reprisals. Yet violence against the enemy dead was not simply destructive. By collecting, circulating, and analyzing the remains of each other’s dead, Florida natives and whites developed new knowledge about the Seminoles as a unique ethnic group.

pp. 973–94 Read online >

Privileges of Locomotion: Expatriation and the Politics of Southwestern Border Crossing

By the early 1830s, nearly twenty thousand U.S. citizens had quit their country for lives as colonists in Mexican Texas. Eric R. Schlereth asks readers to consider this migration without presupposing the inevitable rise of a U.S. empire in North America. To gain this perspective, he explores the history of Anglo colonization in Texas as an expression of expatriation, or a personal right under international law to change political allegiance at will. This right proved deeply resonant to Mexican officials in Texas and Anglo colonists alike. Tracing how the principle of expatriation influenced life in Mexican Texas during the 1820s and the 1830s reveals individuals from both groups creating a legal order at the U.S.-Mexico border determined by agreement that free individuals possessed natural rights to move throughout world.

pp. 995–1020 Read online >

Suffragettes and Soviets: American Feminists and the Specter of Revolutionary Russia

That the U.S. woman suffrage amendment passed within a few years of the Russian Revolution was no mere coincidence. Many know that antisuffragists (the “antis”) used charges of socialism and “bolshevism” to discredit American suffragists. Some know that proponents of woman suffrage taunted their opponents with reminders that women in “darkest Russia” had obtained the vote before their American sisters. But historians have been so loathe to validate red baiters’ accusations that they have ignored U.S. feminists’ abiding attention to revolutionary Russia. In her essay, Julia L. Mickenberg argues that the Russian revolutionary agenda–in theory if not in practice–provided a framework for reimagining the terms of women’s citizenship, and as such, was of vital interest to U.S. feminists. It also reveals historical continuities between abolitionists, feminists, and “friends of Russian freedom.”

pp. 1021–51 Read online >

A Higher “Standard of Life” for the World: U.S. Labor Women’s Reform Internationalism and the Legacies of 1919

Worker and democracy movements surged around the world in 1919, as did hope for a more just international world order. Dorothy Sue Cobble recovers the surprisingly robust traditions of social justice internationalism among U.S. labor women in the aftermath of World War I. She chronicles the internationalist initiatives of the Women’s Trade Union League of America, the largest U.S. working women’s organization in this era, and uses U.S. and non-U.S. sources to compare the class and gender politics of U.S. and European women trade unionists. Her study challenges reigning scholarly tropes of American exceptionalism, expands understandings of U.S. internationalism in the World War I era, and reveals the significance of the 1919 moment for later transformations in global gender and economic policy.

pp. 1052–85 Read online >

“Produce More Joppolos”: John Hersey’s A Bell for Adano and the Making of the “Good Occupation”

Susan L. Carruthers explores an enduring paradox. How have Americans managed to resist understanding themselves as an occupying power despite a long history of military occupation? At the height of World War II, American leaders struggled with the twin tasks of preparing military personnel for the work of occupation and reorienting civilian attitudes toward an unpopular long-term, postwar project. They turned to an unlikely source for inspiration: a novel written by a twenty-nine-year-old journalist. With its endearing hero, Maj. Victor Joppolo, John Hersey’s A Bell for Adano offered Americans an affirmative template for the “good occupation.” Drawing on a diverse range of sources, this essay traces Americans’ sentimental re-education during World War II and the following decades.

pp. 1086–113 Read online >

Listen to Susan L. Carruthers discuss her article in the Journal of American History Podcast.

“Don’t Agonize, Organize!”: The Displaced Homemakers Campaign and the Contested Goals of Postwar Feminism

In an article that challenges portrayals of 1970s feminism as a movement that demeaned and neglected middle-class housewives, Lisa Levenstein examines a major feminist campaign on behalf of “displaced homemakers”–middle-aged housewives who had lost men’s financial support after divorce or widowhood. The leaders of this campaign participated in national feminist efforts to secure social policies that recognized the economic value of middle-class women’s household labor. Fearing that these policies would attract broad popular support, conservatives misrepresented the displaced homemakers campaign and claimed that feminists sought to penalize full-time mothers. At the same time, left-wing activists condemned displaced homemaker advocates for neglecting the struggles of welfare recipients. Such criticisms contributed to the reorientation of modern feminism away from advocacy on behalf of housewives and agitation that emphasized the economic value of women’s unpaid labor in the home.

pp. 1114–38 Read online >

Textbooks & Teaching

    Editor's Choice

    Textbooks Today and Tomorrow: A Conversation about History, Pedagogy, and Economics “Box”

    by Mary Dougherty, Eric Foner, Amy Kinsel, Randall M. Miller, and David J. Trowbridge (pp. 1139–69)
    Read online >

Book Reviews

March 2014, Vol. 100 No. 4

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

A
  • Abbott and Seroff, To Do This, You Must Know How: Music Pedagogy in the Black Gospel Quartet Tradition, by Toni Anderson
  • Abel, The Inevitable Hour: A History of Caring for Dying Patients in America, by Thomas R. Cole
  • Adams, ed., A Companion to the Era of Andrew Jackson, by Scott C. Martin
B
  • Ballard and Cheathem, eds., Of Times and Race: Essays Inspired by John F. Marszalek, by Elizabeth D. Leonard
  • Barajas, Curious Unions: Mexican American Workers and Resistance in Oxnard, California, 1898–1961, by Jim Norris
  • Barber, The Fallacies of States’ Rights, by Alison L. LaCroix
  • Berkowitz and DeWitt, The Other Welfare: Supplemental Security Income and U.S. Social Policy, by Stephen Pimpare
  • Bernier, Characters of Blood: Black Heroism in the Transatlantic Imagination, by Rhondda Robinson Thomas
  • Bland, Stoler, Stevens, and Holt, eds., The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, vol. 6: “The Whole World Hangs in the Balance,” January 8, 1947–September 30, 1949, by Brian Madison Jones
  • Bloom and Martin, Black against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party, by Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar
  • Bottoms, An Aristocracy of Color: Race and Reconstruction in California and the West, 1850–1890, by Ward McAfee
  • Brook, Land of Smoke and Mirrors: A Cultural History of Los Angeles, by Sarah Schrank
  • Brunsman, The Evil Necessity: British Naval Impressment in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World, by Jeff Bolster
  • Busch, Truman’s Triumphs: The 1948 Election and the Making of Postwar America, by Jeffery B. Cook
C
  • Carson and Roberts, Ambition, Competition, and Electoral Reform: The Politics of Congressional Elections across Time, by Daniel Klinghard
  • Castledine, Cold War Progressives: Women’s Interracial Organizing for Peace and Freedom, by Rebecca N. Hill
  • Chamberlain, In the Shadow of Billy the Kid: Susan McSween and the Lincoln County War, by Paula Mitchell Marks
  • Christiansen, Channeling the Past: Politicizing History in Postwar America, by Nelson Lichtenstein
  • Clymer, Family Money: Property, Race, and Literature in the Nineteenth Century, by Felicity Turner
  • Cocks, Tropical Whites: The Rise of the Tourist South in the Americas, by Anthony J. Stanonis
  • Colley, Ain’t Scared of Your Jail: Arrest, Imprisonment, and the Civil Rights Movement, by Emilye Crosby
  • Cooper, Word, like Fire: Maria Stewart, the Bible, and the Rights of African Americans, by Rita Roberts
  • Coudert, Religion, Magic, and Science in Early Modern Europe and America, by Joyce E. Chaplin
  • Cox, ed., Destination Dixie: Tourism and Southern History, by Rebecca Cawood McIntyre
  • Craig, Progressives at War: William G. McAdoo and Newton D. Baker, 1863–1941, by Mark Benbow
  • Cunningham, Klansville, U.S.A.: The Rise and Fall of the Civil Rights–Era Ku Klux Klan, by John W. White
D
  • Daniel, Dispossession: Discrimination against African American Farmers in the Age of Civil Rights, by George B. Ellenberg
  • Dauber, The Sympathetic State: Disaster Relief and the Origins of the American Welfare State, by Jason Scott Smith
  • Davis, What the Yankees Did to Us: Sherman’s Bombardment and Wrecking of Atlanta, by Wesley Moody
  • Dawson, Blacks in and out of the Left, by Kevin R. Anderson
  • del Moral, Negotiating Empire: The Cultural Politics of Schools in Puerto Rico, 1898–1952, by Reinaldo L. Román
  • DeMotte, Bat, Ball, and Bible: Baseball and Sunday Observance in New York, by Benjamin G. Rader
  • Derden, The World’s Largest Prison: The Story of Camp Lawton, by Robert Scott Davis Jr.
  • Doherty, Hollywood and Hitler, 1933–1939, by Saverio Giovacchini
  • Doody, Detroit’s Cold War: The Origins of Postwar Conservatism, by Volker Janssen
  • Duany, Blurred Borders: Transnational Migration between the Hispanic Caribbean and the United States, by Lorrin Thomas
E
  • English, By All Accounts: General Stores and Community Life in Texas and Indian Territory, by W. David Baird
  • Escobedo, From Coveralls to Zoot Suits: The Lives of Mexican American Women on the World War II Home Front, by John Weber
F
  • Fliter and Hoff, Fighting Foreclosure: The Blaisdell Case, the Contract Clause, and the Great Depression, by Richard Polenberg
G
  • Garcílazo, Traqueros: Mexican Railroad Workers in the United States, 1870–1930, by Theresa A. Case
  • Gilje, Free Trade and Sailors’ Rights in the War of 1812, by Donald R. Hickey
  • Glazier, Been Coming through Some Hard Times: Race, History, and Memory in Western Kentucky, by James C. Klotter
  • Goodier, No Votes for Women: The New York State Anti-suffrage Movement, by Elna C. Green
  • Gordin, The Pseudoscience Wars: Immanuel Veilkovsky and the Birth of the Modern Fringe, by John Carson
  • Guerra, Visions of Power in Cuba: Revolution, Redemption, and Resistance, 1959–1971, by Philip Brenner
H
  • Haddad, America’s First Adventure in China: Trade, Treaties, Opium, and Salvation, by Jonathan Goldstein
  • Hadden and Brophy, eds., A Companion to American Legal History, by Christopher L. Tomlins
  • Hager, Word by Word: Emancipation and the Act of Writing, by Michael W. Fitzgerald
  • Hall, Dolores del Río: Beauty in Light and Shade, by Lisa Jarvinen
  • Hallett, Go West, Young Women! The Rise of Early Hollywood, by Allison McCracken
  • Halloran, Thomas Nast: The Father of Modern Political Cartoons, by Linda Frost
  • Harris, Building a Market: The Rise of the Home Improvement Industry, 1914–1960, by Sarah Elvins
  • Hart, Empire of Ideas: The Origins of Public Diplomacy and the Transformation of U.S. Foreign Policy, by James Siekmeier
  • Heins, Priests of Our Democracy: The Supreme Court, Academic Freedom, and the Anti-communist Purge, by M. J. Heale
  • Hobson, ed., St. George Tucker’s Law Reports and Selected Papers, 1782–1825, by Christopher Michael Curtis
  • Hoffman, American Umpire, by Anders Stephanson
  • Holmes and Rofe, eds., The Embassy in Grosvenor Square: American Ambassadors to the United Kingdom, 1938–2008, by Ritchie Ovendale
  • Hou, The City Natural: Garden and Forest Magazine and the Rise of American Environmentalism, by Ellen Stroud
  • Howard, Homeless: Poverty and Place in Urban America, by Carl H. Nightingale
  • Hunnicutt, Free Time: The Forgotten American Dream, by Alexis Macon McCrossen
I
  • Inrig, North Carolina and the Problem of aids: Advocacy, Politics, and Race in the South, by Paul Schadewald
  • Ippolito, Deficits, Debt, and the New Politics of Tax Policy, by Ajay K. Mehrotra
  • Isenberg, Wyatt Earp: A Vigilante Life, by Richard W. Etulain
J
  • Jackson, ed., Yuchi Indian Histories before the Removal Era, by Andrew K. Frank
  • Johnson, Free Radical: Ernest Chambers, Black Power, and the Politics of Race, by David J. Goldberg
  • Johnson, River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom, by Thavolia Glymph
K
  • Kabala, Church-State Relations in the Early American Republic, 1787–1846, by Christopher S. Grenda
  • Kahn, Race in a Bottle: The Story of BiDil and Racialized Medicine in a Post-genomic Age, by Jennifer Hochschild
  • Katznelson, Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time, by Gary Gerstle
  • Kaufman, Project Plowshare: The Peaceful Use of Nuclear Explosives in Cold War America, by Jacob Darwin Hamblin
  • Keehn, Knights of the Golden Circle: Secret Empire, Southern Secession, Civil War, by Daniel W. Crofts
  • Kennedy, ed., A Companion to Woodrow Wilson, by Kendrick A. Clements
  • Kilbride, Being American in Europe, 1750–1860, by Timothy Mason Roberts
  • Kiuchi, Struggles for Equal Voice: The History of African American Media Democracy, by Steven D. Classen
  • Klapper, Ballots, Babies, and Banners of Peace: American Jewish Women’s Activism, 1890–1940, by Mary McCune
  • Kohlstedt, Teaching Children Science: Hands-On Nature Study in North America, 1890–1930, by Adam Laats
  • Krebs, A Generous and Merciful Enemy: Life for German Prisoners of War during the American Revolution, by Gregory T. Knouff
  • Krupat, “That the People Might Live”: Loss and Renewal in Native American Elegy, by Joy Porter
L
  • Landau, Spectacular Wickedness: Sex, Race, and Memory in Storyville, New Orleans, by Gregory D. Smithers
  • Lecklider, Inventing the Egghead: The Battle over Brainpower in American Culture, by Joan Shelley Rubin
  • Lee, Twain’s Brand: Humor in Contemporary American Culture, by Henry Wonham
  • Li, China’s America: The Chinese View the United States, 1900–2000, by Yafeng Xia
M
  • Mandler, Return from the Natives: How Margaret Mead Won the Second World War and Lost the Cold War, by Walter L. Hixson
  • Mantler, Power to the Poor: Black-Brown Coalition and the Fight for Economic Justice, 1960–1974, by Catherine M. Paden
  • Marotti, Heaven’s Soldiers: Free People of Color in the Spanish Legacy in Antebellum Florida, by Canter Brown Jr.
  • Mason and Morgan, eds., Seeking a New Majority: The Republican Party and American Politics, 1960–1980, by Daniel K. Williams
  • May, Bending toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy, by Steven F. Lawson
  • Mayers, fdr’s Ambassadors and the Diplomacy of Crisis: From the Rise of Hitler to the End of World War II, by Darlene J. Sadlier
  • McDermott, The Jury in Lincoln’s America, by John Fabian Witt
  • McGuinness, Called to Serve: A History of Nuns in America, by Leslie W. Tentler
  • McKinney, Henry W. Blair’s Campaign to Reform America: From the Civil War to the U.S. Senate, by Randall M. Miller
  • Mieczkowski, Eisenhower’s Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige, by Benjamin P. Greene
  • Miller, Misalliance: Ngo Dinh Diem, the United States, and the Fate of South Vietnam, by Eugenie M. Blang
  • Minchin, Empty Mills: The Fight against Imports and the Decline of the U.S. Textile Industry, by Marko Maunula
  • Mires, Capital of the World: The Race to Host the United Nations, by Mary Ann Heiss
  • Mizruchi, The Fracturing of the American Corporate Elite, by Judith Stein
  • Mohun, Risk: Negotiating Safety in American Society, by Donald W. Rogers
  • Moltke-Hansen, ed., William Gilmore Simms’s Unfinished Civil War: Consequences for a Southern Man of Letters, by John M. McCardell Jr.
  • Munns, A Single Sky: How an International Community Forged the Science of Radio Astronomy, by Ann Johnson
N
  • Nye, America’s Assembly Line, by Mansel G. Blackford
O
  • Ogata, Designing the Creative Child: Playthings and Places in Midcentury America, by Bernard Mergen
  • Osterud, Putting the Barn before the House: Women and Family Farming in Early-Twentieth-Century New York, by Carrie A. Meyer
P
  • Pak, Gentlemen Bankers: The World of J. P. Morgan, by Stephen A. Schuker
  • Popp, The Holiday Makers: Magazines, Advertising, and Mass Tourism in Postwar America, by Susan S. Rugh
Q
  • Quirke, Eyes on Labor: News Photography and America’s Working Class, by Vincent DiGirolamo
R
  • Reese, Testing Wars in the Public Schools: A Forgotten History, by Bob Pepperman Taylor
  • Reeves-Ellington, Domestic Frontiers: Gender, Reform, and American Interventions in the Ottoman Balkans and the Near East, by Paul William Harris
  • Rieger, The People’s Car: A Global History of the Volkswagen Beetle, by Christopher W. Wells
  • Rimby, Mira Lloyd Dock and the Progressive Era Conservation Movement, by David Stradling
  • Riseman, Defending Whose Country? Indigenous Soldiers in the Pacific War, by Alison Bernstein
  • Robertson, The Original Compromise: What the Constitution’s Framers Were Really Thinking, by C. Bradley Thompson
  • Rosenthal, Reimagining Indian Country: Native American Migration and Identity in Twentieth-Century Los Angeles, by Stephen Amerman
  • Rúa, A Grounded Identidad: Making New Lives in Chicago’s Puerto Rican Neighborhoods, by Lilia Fernández
  • Rubin, Well Met: Renaissance Faires and the American Counterculture, by Michael J. Kramer
S
  • Sachs, Arcadian America: The Death and Life of an Environmental Tradition, by Thomas P. Slaughter
  • Saul, The Life and Times of Charles R. Crane, 1858–1939: American Businessman, Philanthropist, and a Founder of Russian Studies in America, by Eugene P. Trani
  • Scott, Reining in the State: Civil Society and Congress in the Vietnam and Watergate Eras, by Athan Theoharis
  • Scranton and Fridenson, Reimagining Business History, by William R. Childs
  • Shalev, American Zion: The Old Testament as a Political Text from the Revolution to the Civil War, by Paul C. Gutjahr
  • Sheffer, The Romance of Race: Incest, Miscegenation, and Multiculturalism in the United States, 1880–1930, by Gregory D. Smithers
  • Shermer, Sunbelt Capitalism: Phoenix and the Transformation of American Politics, by William A. Link
  • Shermer, ed., Barry Goldwater and the Remaking of the American Political Landscape, by Kim Phillips-Fein
  • Silver, Louis Marshall and the Rise of Jewish Ethnicity in America: A Biography, by Hasia R. Diner
  • Smith, The Slaves’ Gamble: Choosing Sides in the War of 1812, by David Waldstreicher
  • Smith, On the Edge of Freedom: The Fugitive Slave Issue in South Central Pennsylvania, 1820–1870, by Keith P. Griffler
  • Smith, A Cautious Enthusiasm: Mystical Piety and Evangelicalism in Colonial South Carolina, by S. Scott Rohrer
  • Solovey, Shaky Foundations: The Politics–Patronage–Social Science Nexus in Cold War America, by Ronald Lora
  • Spielvogel, Interpreting Sacred Ground: The Rhetoric of National Civil War Parks and Battlefields, by Thomas J. Brown
  • Stewart, ed., Blood in the Hills: A History of Violence in Appalachia, by Mark T. Banker
  • Storrs, The Second Red Scare and the Unmaking of the New Deal Left, by Jonathan Bell
  • Streeby, Radical Sensations: World Movements, Violence, and Visual Culture, by Paul Buhle
T
  • Thompson, A Most Stirring and Significant Episode: Religion and the Rise and Fall of Prohibition in Black Atlanta, 1865–1887, by J. William Harris
  • Traflet, A Nation of Small Shareholders: Marketing Wall Street after World War II, by Wyatt C. Wells
  • Troy, Moynihan’s Moment: America’s Fight against Zionism as Racism, by Aaron Berman
U
  • Unger, Beyond Nature’s Housekeepers: American Women in Environmental History, by Susan A. Miller
  • Unrau, Indians, Alcohol, and the Roads to Taos and Santa Fe, by Lance R. Blyth
V
  • Valerio-Jiménez, River of Hope: Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands, by Gilberto M. Hinojosa
  • Vantoch, The Jet Sex: Airline Stewardesses and the Making of an American Icon, by Phil Tiemeyer
  • Vicedo, The Nature and Nurture of Love: From Imprinting to Attachment in Cold War America, by Elizabeth Watkins
  • von Daacke, Freedom Has a Face: Race, Identity, and Community in Jefferson’s Virginia, by Phillip Hamilton
W
  • Weil, The Sovereign Citizen: Denaturalization and the Origins of the American Republic, by Dorothee Schneider
  • Wells, Car Country: An Environmental History, by James M. Rubenstein
  • Wetta, The Louisiana Scalawags: Politics, Race, and Terrorism during the Civil War and Reconstruction, by William Warren Rogers Jr.
  • Wheeler, How Sex Became a Civil Liberty, by Whitney Strub
  • Williams, ed., Indigenous Women and Work: From Labor to Activism, by David F. Arnold
  • Willis and Krauthamer, Envisioning Emancipation: Black Americans and the End of Slavery, by Bridget R. Cooks
  • Wisnioski, Engineers for Change: Competing Visions of Technology in 1960s America, by Bruce E. Seely
  • Wright, Sharing the Prize: The Economics of the Civil Rights Revolution in the American South, by Iwan Morgan
Y
  • Yarbrough, Theodore Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition, by Richard D. White Jr.
  • Young, Why We Fight: Congress and the Politics of World War II, by Brian Waddell
Z
  • Zeiler and DuBois, eds., A Companion to World War II, by Robert A. McLain

Digital History Reviews

  • Historical Maps of the United States; and Norman B. Leventhal Map Center Digital Collection,, by S. Max Edelson (p. 1305) Read online >
  • Civil War Trust Battle Apps, by Scott Nesbit (p. 1307) Read online >
  • Women and Social Movements, International–1840 to Present,, by Megan Shockley (p. 1308) Read online >
  • Digital Durham,, by Michele Gillespie (p. 1309) Read online >

Letters to the Editor

Announcements

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cover image

On the cover:

John Hersey’s valorization of Italian Americans in A Bell for Adano (1944) as the culturally sensitive foot soldiers in the “good occupation” found reflection in wartime photographers’ depictions of joyous reunions between G.I.’s and relatives in occupied Sicily. In Nick Parrino’s September 1943 photograph Vincent J. Orivello of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, appears at a sidewalk café in Palermo enjoying ice cream with three of his cousins. Courtesy Prints and Photographs Division, fsa/owi Collection, Library of Congress, LC-USW3-040006-E. See Susan L. Carruthers, “‘Produce More Joppolos’: John Hersey’s A Bell for Adano and the Making of the ‘Good Occupation,’” 1086.

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