Journal of American History

Presidential Address

Navigating Segregated Life in America’s Racial Borderhoods, 1910s–1950s

Albert M. Camarillo, OAH President (2012-2013) Professor of American History; Leon Sloss Jr. Memorial Professor; and Special Assistant to the Provost for Faculty Diversity in charge of the Faculty Development Initiative of the Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity. Stanford University, Stanford, CA
Albert M. Camarillo, Stanford University - OAH President (2012-2013)

In his presidential address to the 2013 Organization of American Historians annual meeting, Albert M. Camarillo takes a comparative approach to understanding how African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Asian Americans dealt with urban residential segregation. Pointing to both similarities and differences in these groups’ experiences, Camarillo focuses in particular on the system of segregation of African Americans outside of the South and of Mexican Americans in the Southwest, which he terms James Crow and Jaime Crow. As he demonstrates, in cities across the North and West, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Asian Americans negotiated barriers by crossing, passing, and sidestepping color lines amid formal and informal attempts to enforce those color lines.

pp. 642–4 Read online >


“Our Very Pronounced Theory of Equal Rights to All”: Race, Citizenship, and Populism in the South Texas Borderlands

Gregg Cantrell explores Populism from a seldom-studied perspective, examining the People’s party’s efforts to win votes among the ethnic Mexicans of the south Texas borderlands. Populists there strove to build interethnic coalitions, only to run headlong into massive voter fraud perpetrated by Democratic bosses&8212;a practice abetted by the legality of alien suffrage in Texas. This situation led one San Antonio Populist, T. J. McMinn, to spearhead an effort to end alien suffrage by challenging the right of Mexicanos to become U.S. citizens. The resulting federal court case, In re Rodriguez, laid bare the stark choices that Populists in the region faced: alienate Mexicanos by trying to eliminate fraud or stand by and watch elections be stolen by Democratic manipulation of immigrant votes.

pp. 663–90 Read online >

The Urbanization of the Eastern Gray Squirrel in the United States

Editor's Choice

Although native to North America, gray squirrels became residents in U.S. cities only during the second half of the nineteenth century, when humans intentionally released them in urban parks and provided them with food and shelter. For social reformers, the squirrels’ rapid adaptation to urban life and their apparent responsiveness to charity provided an opportunity to promote a vision of community that cut across species boundaries to include certain animals and exclude certain humans. Etienne Benson’s history of urban squirrels and of their advocates and critics reveals how nonhuman actors helped shape the material and social landscape of the American city.

pp. 691–710 Read online >

Listen to Etienne Benson discuss his article in the Journal of American History Podcast.

“Modern America Desperately Needs to Listen”: The Emerging Indian in an Age of Environmental Crisis

Paul C. Rosier examines American Indians’ perspectives on the “environmental crisis” that shook American society in the 1960s and 1970s. Indian activists, politicians, and intellectuals promoted ecological issues tied to political and legal questions of sovereignty commonly associated with Indians’ “red power” movement, while collaborating with non-Indians on environmental problems to find political support and common ground. His essay addresses the neglect of American Indians in coverage of the 1960s and modern environmental activism and underscores the relationship between political sovereignty and environment, the interplay of symbolic space and real place, and the roots and range of the environmental justice movement. He also offers an example of how Indians’ ideas and actions can be integrated into the broader narratives of modern American history.

pp. 711–35 Read online >

Black Power in Action: The Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation, Robert F. Kennedy, and the Politics of the Urban Crisis

In early 1966 Senator Robert F. Kennedy set forth his Community Development Corporation (CDC) initiative, which was intended both to tackle urban inequality and to meet the challenge of growing black radicalism as the urban crisis deepened. Tom Adam Davies assesses the evolution of the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation—the nation’s first CDC—shedding light on how liberals’ reformist efforts to steer African Americans away from militancy during the black power era intersected with black community activism and urban-revival efforts at the local level. He argues that Restoration’s programmatic vision and institutional legacy challenge us to think anew about the meaning of black power as it merged into the American mainstream.

pp. 736–60 Read online >

Metagraph: Innovations in Form and Content

Review Essay: The Armageddon Letters

Thomas W. Zeiler
pp. 761–65 Read online >

Listen to a podcast interview with James G. Blight and Janet Lang as they discuss the reexamination of the Cuban missile crisis and their book project, The Armageddon Letters.

Exhibition Reviews

  • “Introduction,” by Brian Horrigan and Kathleen Franz (pp. 766)
    Read online >

  • Imperiled Promise: The State of History in the National Park Service, by Ari Kelman (pp. 767)
    Read online >

  • Keweenaw National Historic Park, by Nicholas J. Hoffman (pp. 770)
    Read online >

  • National Museum of Health and Medicine, by Ashley Bowen-Murphy (pp. 775)
    Read online >

  • War/Photography: Images of Armed Conflict and Its Aftermath, by Clay Lewis (pp. 781)
    Read online >

  • Inspiring Beauty: 50 Years of Ebony Fashion Fair, by Natasha Barnes (pp. 786)
    Read online >

  • The Woody Guthrie Center, by Elizabeth Sharpe Overman (pp. 790)
    Read online >

Book Reviews

Dec. 2013, Vol. 100 No. 3

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Appleby and Cummings, eds., Catholics in the American Century: Recasting Narratives of U.S. History, by Michael P. Carroll
  • Argersinger, Representation and Inequality in Late Nineteenth-Century America: The Politics of Apportionment, by Paula Baker
  • Avrich and Avrich, Sasha and Emma: The Anarchist Odyssey of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman, by Stephen Cole
  • Bailyn, The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America; The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600–1675, by Jenny Hale Pulsipher
  • Bald, Bengali Harlem and the Lost Histories of South Asian America, by Nico Slate
  • Ball, To Live an Antislavery Life: Personal Politics and the Antebellum Black Middle Class, by Hilary J. Moss
  • Berman, American Arabesque: Arabs, Islam, and the 19th-Century Imaginary, by Amal Amireh
  • Best, The Life of Herbert Hoover: Keeper of the Torch, 1933–1964, by Burton I. Kaufman
  • Blaszczyk, The Color Revolution, by Robert D. Friedel
  • Blight and Lang, The Armageddon Letters: Kennedy/Khrushchev/Castro in the Cuban Missile Crisis, by Thomas W. Zeiler
  • Bogdan, with Elks and Knoll, Picturing Disability: Beggar, Freak, Citizen, and Other Photographic Rhetoric, by Douglas Baynton
  • Brekus, Sarah Osborn’s World: The Rise of Evangelical Christianity in Early America, by Susan Juster
  • Bremer, Building a New Jerusalem: John Davenport, a Puritan in Three Worlds, by Mark Valeri
  • Briones, Jim and Jap Crow: A Cultural History of 1940s Interracial America, by Charlotte Brooks
  • Brown, African-Atlantic Cultures and the South Carolina Lowcountry, by Jason Young
  • Burns, The Life and Death of the Radical Historical Jesus, by Paul Harvey
  • Burt, Lincoln’s Tragic Pragmatism: Lincoln, Douglas, and Moral Conflict, by Douglas Wilson
  • Carey, From Peace to Freedom: Quaker Rhetoric and the Birth of American Antislavery, 1657–1761, by Jonathan D. Sassi
  • Cervetti, S. Weir Mitchell, 1829–1914: Philadelphia’s Literary Physician, by Richard A. Meckel
  • Chamberlain, The Notorious Elizabeth Tuttle: Marriage, Murder, and Madness in the Family of Jonathan Edwards, by Bruce C. Daniels
  • Chasar, Everyday Reading: Poetry and Popular Culture in Modern America, by Lisa M. Steinman
  • Childers, The Failure of Popular Sovereignty: Slavery, Manifest Destiny, and the Radicalization of Southern Politics, by Frank Towers
  • Churella, The Pennsylvania Railroad, vol. 1: Building an Empire, 1846–1917, by Mark Aldrich
  • Cinotto, Soft Soil, Black Grapes: The Birth of Italian Winemaking in California, by David Vaught
  • Cohen, The President’s Legislative Policy Agenda, 1789–2002, by Peverill Squire
  • Collier-Thomas, Jesus, Jobs, and Justice: African American Women and Religion, by John M. Giggie
  • Conyers, ed., Charles H. Houston: An Interdisciplinary Study of Civil Rights Leadership, by Lee Sartain
  • Corbett, No Turning Point: The Saratoga Campaign in Perspective, by James Kirby Martin
  • Crist, ed., The Papers of Jefferson Davis, vol. 13: 1871–1879, by Brooks D. Simpson
  • Curtis, Jefferson’s Freeholders and the Politics of Ownership in the Old Dominion, by A. Glenn Crothers
  • Dalzell, The Good Rich and What They Cost Us, by David Nasaw
  • Delmont, The Nicest Kids in Town: American Bandstand, Rock ’n’ Roll, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in 1950s Philadelphia, by Charles McKinney
  • DeLombard, In the Shadow of the Gallows: Race, Crime, and American Civic Identity, by Sally E. Hadden
  • Donalson, The Espionage and Sedition Acts in World War I: Using Wartime Loyalty Laws for Revenge and Profit, by Adam J. Hodges
  • Dull, American Naval History, 1607–1865: Overcoming the Colonial Legacy, by Kurt Hackemer
  • Dunbar, Black Regions of the Imagination: African American Writers between the Nation and the World, by Gene Andrew Jarrett
  • Ellwood, The Shock of America: Europe and the Challenge of the Century, by Ian Tyrrell
  • Faflik, Boarding Out: Inhabiting the American Urban Literary Imagination, 1840–1860, by Michael Millner
  • Falk and Pateman, eds., Emma Goldman: A Documentary History of the American Years, vol. 3; Light and Shadows, 1910–1916, by Nancy C. Unger
  • Fernandez, Brown in the Windy City: Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago, by David A. Badillo
  • Fisher, The Indian Great Awakening: Religion and the Shaping of Native Cultures in Early America, by R. Todd Romero
  • Foote and Mazzolini, eds., Histories of the Dustheap: Waste, Material Cultures, Social Justice, by Tom McCarthy
  • Gadsden, Between North and South: Delaware, Desegregation, and the Myth of American Sectionalism, by Jeffrey L. Littlejohn
  • Garcia, From the Jaws of Victory: The Triumph and Tragedy of Cesar Chavez and the Farm Worker Movement, by Richard A. Garcia
  • Garvey, Writing with Scissors: American Scrapbooks from the Civil War to the Harlem Renaissance, by Patricia Prandini Buckler
  • Gilmore, Groundswell: Grassroots Feminist Activism in Postwar America, by Melissa Estes Blair
  • Gitlin, Berglund, and Arenson, eds., Frontier Cities: Encounters at the Crossroads of Empire, by Carl Abbott
  • Goss, The Paradox of Gender Equality: How American Women’s Groups Gained and Lost Their Public Voice, by Kathleen A. Laughlin
  • Graebner and Bennett, The Versailles Treaty and Its Legacy: The Failure of the Wilsonian Vision, by Klaus Schwabe
  • Greenberg, A Wicked War: Polk, Clay, Lincoln, and the 1846 U.S. Invasion of Mexico, by John C. Pinheiro
  • Griffin, America’s Revolution, by John K. Alexander
  • Gruesser, The Empire Abroad and the Empire at Home: African American Literature and the Era of Overseas Expansion, by Glenn Reynolds
  • Hahn, The Life and Times of Mary Musgrove, by Michelle LeMaster
  • Hall, Roger Sherman and the Creation of the American Republic, by Jane E. Calvert
  • Hartnett, Executing Democracy, vol. 2: Capital Punishment and the Making of America, 1835–1843, by Alan Rogers
  • Hartnett, Executing Democracy, vol. 1: Capital Punishment and the Making of America, 1683–1807, by Alan Rogers
  • Harvey, The Civil War and American Art, by Sarah Burns
  • Haulman, The Politics of Fashion in Eighteenth–Century America, by Cara Anzilotti
  • Haynes, The Last Segregated Hour: The Memphis Kneel-Ins and the Campaign for Southern Church Desegregation, by Carter Dalton Lyon
  • Hedstrom, The Rise of Liberal Religion: Book Culture and American Spirituality in the Twentieth Century, by Gary Dorrien
  • Heinemann, ed., Inventing the Modern American Family: Family Values and Social Change in 20th Century United States, by Priscilla Yamin
  • Hersch, Inventing the American Astronaut, by James A. Spiller
  • Hershock, A New England Prison Diary: Slander, Religion, and Markets in Early America, by Michael Meranze
  • Hill, ed., The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, vol. 11: The Caribbean Diaspora, 1910–1920, by Shawn Leigh Alexander
  • Hine and McCluskey, eds., The Black Chicago Renaissance, by Theresa Leininger-Miller
  • House, A Military History of the Cold War, 1944–1962, by Brian Linn
  • Houston, The Nashville Way: Racial Etiquette and the Struggle for Social Justice in a Southern City, by Françoise N. Hamlin
  • Imada, Aloha America: Hula Circuits through the U.S. Empire, by Cristina Bacchilega
  • Irwin, Gordian Knot: Apartheid and the Unmaking of the Liberal World Order, by Francis Njubi Nesbitt
  • Isaac and Bell, eds., Uncertain Empire: American History and the Idea of the Cold War, by Hugh Wilford
  • Jones, The American Red Cross from Clara Barton to the New Deal, by Jacob Remes
  • Keith, Unbecoming Americans: Writing Race and Nation from the Shadows of Citizenship, 1945–1960, by Cornelis A. van Minnen
  • Kelman, A Misplaced Massacre: Struggling over the Memory of Sand Creek, by Michael A. Elliott
  • Kerrigan, Johnny Appleseed and the American Orchard: A Cultural History, by Steven Stoll
  • Kierner, Martha Jefferson Randolph, Daughter of Monticello: Her Life and Times, by Susan Kern
  • King, Sombreros and Motorcycles in a Newer South: The Politics of Aesthetics in South Carolina’s Tourism Industry, by Brenden Martin
  • Kirshner, Hollywood’s Last Golden Age: Politics, Society, and the Seventies Film in America, by Jerold Simmons
  • Koistinen, State of War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1945–2011, by Benjamin Fordham
  • Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America, by Jon Davidann
  • Lahti, Cultural Construction of Empire: The U.S. Army in Arizona and New Mexico, by C. Joseph Genetin-Pilawa
  • Langdale, Superfluous Southerners: Cultural Conservatism and the South, 1920–1990, by Thomas A. Underwood
  • Leibiger, ed., A Companion to James Madison and James Monroe, by Christopher J. Young
  • Levy, Freaks of Fortune: The Emerging World of Capitalism and Risk in America, by Jeffrey Sklansky
  • Lichtman, The Supreme Court and McCarthy-Era Repression: One Hundred Decisions, by Alex Goodall
  • Logemann, Trams or Tailfins? Public and Private Prosperity in Postwar West Germany and the United States, by Nicholas Dagen Bloom
  • Lovell, This Is Not Civil Rights: Discovering Rights Talk in 1939 America, by Sidney M. Milkis
  • Margolies, ed., A Companion to Harry S. Truman, by Alonzo L. Hamby
  • Martinek, Socialism and Print Culture in America, 1897–1920, by John Enyeart
  • Martini, Agent Orange: History, Science, and the Politics of Uncertainty, by David Kinkela
  • Maxwell, Shields, and Whayne, eds., The Ongoing Burden of Southern History: Politics and Identity in the Twenty-First-Century South, by W. Fitzhugh Brundage
  • Mikoyan, ed. by Savranskaya, The Soviet Cuban Missile Crisis: Castro, Mikoyan, Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Missiles of November, by Philip Nash
  • Moore, ed., City of Promises: A History of the Jews of New York, by Hadassa Kosak
  • Moorhead, Princeton Seminary in American Religion and Culture, by Peter J. Thuesen
  • Morris, Under Household Government: Sex and Family in Puritan Massachusetts, by Thomas A. Foster
  • Nasaw, The Patriarch: The Remarkable Life and Turbulent Times of Joseph P. Kennedy, by Matthew Dallek
  • Nelson, Ruin Nation: Destruction and the American Civil War, by Mark E. Neely Jr.
  • Newman, On Records: Delaware Indians, Colonists, and the Media of History and Memory, by Dawn G. Marsh
  • Newmyer, The Treason Trial of Aaron Burr: Law, Politics, and the Character Wars of the New Nation, by Ronald L. Hatzenbuehler
  • Nielsen, A Disability History of the United States, by Martin S. Pernick
  • Nolan, The Transatlantic Century: Europe and America, 1890–2010, by Ian Tyrrell
  • Noonan, The Strange Career of Porgy and Bess: Race, Culture, and America’s Most Famous Opera, by Lauren Rebecca Sklaroff
  • Oakes, Freedom National: The Destruction of Slavery in the United States, 1861–1865, by Kate Masur
  • Orgeron, Orgeron, and Streible, eds., Learning with the Lights Off: Educational Film in the United States, by Sol Cohen
  • Patterson, The Eve of Destruction: How 1965 Transformed America, by Michael Kazin
  • Perrillo, Uncivil Rights: Teachers, Unions, and Race in the Battle for School Equality, by Sonya Ramsey
  • Plummer, In Search of Power: African Americans in the Era of Decolonization, 1956–1974, by Andy DeRoche
  • Prasad, The Land of Too Much: American Abundance and the Paradox of Poverty, by Michael B. Katz
  • Putnam, The Insistent Call: Rhetorical Moments in Black Anticolonialism, 1929–1937, by Glenn Reynolds
  • Putnam, Radical Moves: Caribbean Migrants and the Politics of Race in the Jazz Age, by Winston James
  • Quitt, Stephen A. Douglas and Antebellum Democracy, by Erik B. Alexander
  • Reed, Dixie Bohemia: A French Quarter Circle in the 1920s, by Alecia P. Long
  • Richard, When the United States Invaded Russia: Woodrow Wilson’s Siberian Disaster, by Georg Schild
  • Ridarsky and Huth, eds., Susan B. Anthony and the Struggle for Equal Rights, by Hélène Quanquin
  • Robinson, A City within a City: The Black Freedom Struggle in Grand Rapids, Michigan, by Todd M. Michney
  • Rothman, Flush Times and Fever Dreams: A Story of Capitalism and Slavery in the Age of Jackson, by Charles Post
  • Runstedtler, Jack Johnson, Rebel Sojourner: Boxing in the Shadow of the Global Color Line, by Randy Roberts
  • Rushdy, American Lynching, by Lisa Arellano
  • Ryan, Yamashita’s Ghost: War Crimes, MacArthur’s Justice, and Command Accountability, by James J. Weingartner
  • Sadlier, Americans All: Good Neighbor Cultural Diplomacy in World War II, by Max Paul Friedman
  • Sakmyster, A Communist Odyssey: The Life of Józef Pogány/John Pepper, by Vernon L. Pedersen
  • Samuels, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Abraham Lincoln, by Kevin Gannon
  • Scott and Hébrard, Freedom Papers: An Atlantic Odyssey in the Age of Emancipation, by Jim Downs
  • Sellers, Crabgrass Crucible: Suburban Nature and the Rise of Environmentalism in Twentieth-Century America, by R. Bruce Stephenson
  • Shellenbarger, High Country Summers: The Early Second Homes of Colorado, 1880–1940, by Joseph Bigott
  • Shircliffe, Desegregating Teachers: Contesting the Meaning of Equality of Educational Opportunity in the South post Brown, by Jonna Perrillo
  • Sluyter, Black Ranching Frontiers: African Cattle Herders of the Atlantic World, 1500–1900, by Kevin Dawson
  • Smith, Racial Democracy and the Black Metropolis: Housing Policy in Postwar Chicago, by Joseph Heathcott
  • Smithers, Slave Breeding: Sex, Violence, and Memory in African American History, by R. Blakeslee Gilpin
  • Spahn, Thomas Jefferson, Time, and History, by Philipp Ziesche
  • Sperb, Disney’s Most Notorious Film: Race, Convergence, and the Hidden Histories of Song of the South, by Ryan Friedman
  • St-Onge, Podruchny, and Macdougall, eds., Contours of a People: Metis Family, Mobility, and History, by Martha Harroun Foster
  • Stern, Telling Genes: The Story of Genetic Counseling in America, by Garland E. Allen
  • Stern, Southern Crucifix, Southern Cross: Catholic-Protestant Relations in the Old South, by W. Jason Wallace
  • Stole, Advertising at War: Business, Consumers, and Government in the 1940s, by Pamela E. Pennock
  • Swagerty, The Indianization of Lewis and Clark, by Leonard J. Sadosky
  • Taylor, The Sounds of Capitalism: Advertising, Music, and the Conquest of Culture, by Pamela Walker Laird
  • Tell, Confessional Crises and Cultural Politics in Twentieth-Century America, by Corey D. B. Walker
  • Thomas, Globetrotting: African American Athletes and Cold War Politics, by Amy Bass
  • Van Wagenen, Remembering the Forgotten War: The Enduring Legacies of the U.S.-Mexican War, by Donald E. Pease
  • Wald, American Night: The Literary Left in the Era of the Cold War, by Cheryl Higashida
  • Wallace, Media Capital: Architecture and Communications in New York City, by Richard B. Kielbowicz
  • Watson, Jackson’s Sword: The Army Officer Corps on the American Frontier, 1810–1821, by William H. Bergmann
  • Weber, Ames, and Wittmann, eds., The American Circus, by Don B. Wilmeth
  • Weikle-Mills, Imaginary Citizens: Child Readers and the Limits of American Independence, 1640–1868, by James Marten
  • Weiner, with Hough, Sex, Sickness, and Slavery: Illness in the Antebellum South, by Rana Hogarth
  • West, The Essential West: Collected Essays, by Jon Coleman
  • West, Family or Freedom: People of Color in the Antebellum South, by Jeff Forret
  • White, The Rise to Respectability: Race, Religion, and the Church of God in Christ, by Jonathan L. Walton
  • Williams, Gendered Politics in the Modern South: The Susan Smith Case and the Rise of a New Sexism, by Joan Marie Johnson
  • Williams, Alice Morse Earle and the Domestic History of Early America, by Julie Des Jardins
  • Wilson, Negro Building: Black Americans in the World of Fairs and Museums, by Joyce Blackwell
  • Witt, Lincoln’s Code: The Laws of War in American History, by Brian Holden Reid
  • Wyke, Caesar in the usa, by Michael Meckler
  • Yoshitani, Reagan on War: A Reappraisal of the Weinberger Doctrine, 1980–1984, by Ingo Trauschweizer

Movie Reviews

  • The Untold History of the United States, by Susan L. Carruthers (p. 924) Read online >
  • 42, by Stephen J. Whitfield (p. 929) Read online >
  • Hannah Arendt, by Valerie Hartouni (p. 931) Read online >
  • Bill W, by Tona Hangen (p. 933) Read online >
  • Brothers on the Line, by James I. Deutsch (p. 935) Read online >
  • Makers: Women Who Make America, by Judith Smith (p. 937) Read online >
  • Brother Man: The Art and Life of Lynd Ward, by Paul Buhle (p. 939) Read online >

Digital History Reviews

  • Civil War Washington, by Rachel A. Shelden (p. 942) Read online >
  • Gilded Age Plains City: The Great Sheedy Murder Trial and the Booster Ethos of Lincoln, Nebraska, by Heather Fryer (p. 943) Read online >
  • Ansel Adams’s Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanar, by Jasmine Alinder (p. 944) Read online >
  • Herblock’s History: Political Cartoons from the Crash to the Millennium
    Dr. Seuss Went to War: A Catalog of Political Cartoons
    , by Chris Lamb (p. 946) Read online >
  • Cold War International History Project Digital Archive, by Mark Atwood Lawrence (p. 947) Read online >

Letters to the Editor


Recent Scholarship

View “Recent Scholarship” listing online >

Recent Scholarship is available as a searchable database, Recent Scholarship Online >

cover image

On the cover:

This cartoon was published in the Harvard Lampoon in 1903, a few years after gray squirrels first appeared in Harvard Yard, where they were provided with food and nest boxes. It plays on Harvard University students’ perceptions of “muckers”–street boys known for begging students to “scramble a cent” and for rivaling cats as a threat to squirrels’ lives. L. F. Peck, “Hi, Mister! Scramble a Nut?,” reprinted from Harvard Lampoon, Dec. 17, 1903, p. 121. Courtesy Harvard University Archives, huk 510. See Etienne Benson, “The Urbanization of the Eastern Gray Squirrel in the United States,” 691.

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