Journal of American History

September 2013

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Volume 100, No. 2

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Citizens of Nowhere: Fugitive Slaves and Free African Americans in Mexico, 1833—1857

Tracing the lives of fugitive slaves in Mexico, Sarah E. Cornell shows that black and white southerners engaged regularly with Mexico during the antebellum era. Southern officials took advantage of Mexican policy, which prevented fugitive slaves, and eventually all African Americans, from legally residing in Mexico. Male fugitive slaves’ inability to acquire proof of their national origin, moreover, made them vulnerable to arrest, imprisonment, and extortion. Mexico, however, also refused to extradite fugitive slaves and did not create a policy to address this dilemma. The mixed reception of African Americans illuminates continuing racism in post-independence Mexico. Former slaves used multiple strategies to integrate themselves into local communities, carving out a limited, precarious freedom. Mexican sources reveal the ability of U.S. slaveholders and officials to limit black freedom abroad.

pp. 351–74 Read online >

What Counts: Trends in Racial Violence in the Postbellum South

Trends in lynching’s numbers help shape the questions we ask about its history. But our tallies are complicated by lynching’s challenging definition, the lack of dependable sources, and divergent interpretations of the resulting trends. Michael Ayers Trotti’s essay focuses on these methodological concerns, reflecting upon broad issues in the use of historical evidence as it explores southern violence. In particular, it seeks to refine our understanding of the utility of numbers in this work. Lynchings were intended to inspire terror, and terror–like much in history–resists quantification. Lynchings were in no way equivalently terrorizing, but statistically each ends up as such: precisely one lynching.

pp. 375–400 Read online >

“The Conscience of America”: Human Rights, Jewish Politics, and American Foreign Policy at the 1945 United Nations San Francisco Conference

The history of human rights in American foreign policy is often explained as a zero-sum game between moral principles and political calculations. In his article, James Loeffler challenges this notion, using the case of American Jewish advocacy at the United Nations in 1945. Using an array of new archival sources related to competing Jewish efforts to lobby State Department officials, he concludes that the conventional narrative of American Jewish leadership in the field of human rights obscures deeper ideological conflicts regarding Zionism, Jewish identity, and anti-Semitism. He likewise argues that American human rights policy already exhibited a pattern of sophisticated give and take between State Department officials and nongovernmental organizations, in which both sides were driven by a variety of conflicting strategic motivations. This belies recent scholarly representations of the late 1940s as either a golden age or a false dawn for human rights in American foreign policy.

pp. 401–28 Read online >

“Where We Can Battle for the Lord and Japan”: The Development of Liberal Protestant Antiracism before World War II

Sarah Griffith examines the evolution of transpacific liberal Protestant missionary activism from the 1890s through the early 1940s. Through the lives and experiences of a handful of leading secretaries of the Young Men’s Christian Association, she shows how shifting U.S.-Japan geopolitics, opposition to the anti-Japanese movement in the United States and to imperialism in East Asia, and new interpretations of liberal Christian theology shaped the social activism of liberal Protestants prior to World War II. Going beyond a nation-centered interpretation, her essay adds to a growing body of scholarship that reexamines the interconnections between Christian missionaries, empire building, and activism in the first half of the twentieth century.

pp. 429–53 Read online >

Mobilizing for the Market: Organized Business, Wage-Price Controls, and the Politics of Inflation, 1971—1974

Conservatism in the United States blossomed in the 1970s, particularly as the energy crisis and “stagflationary” economy seemed to discredit the sacred tenets of New Deal liberalism for many Americans. But how did economic conservatives turn that crisis into opportunity? By exploring how the country’s top business leadership mobilized against Richard M. Nixon’s mandatory program of wage and price controls, Benjamin C. Waterhouse argues that conservative business leaders and their political allies learned–slowly and with a great deal of difficulty–how to turn public opinion against labor unions and big-government liberalism, using the wedge of inflation to promote the free market.

pp. 454–78 Read online >

Book Reviews

Sept. 2013, Vol. 100 No. 2

Alphabetical by the last name of the book's first author or editor.

  • Ambar, How Governors Built the Modern American Presidency, by William D. Pederson
  • Anderson, Twilight of the Idols: Hollywood and the Human Sciences in 1920s America, by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett
  • Baker, Prigg v. Pennsylvania: Slavery, the Supreme Court, and the Ambivalent Constitution, by Jeannine Marie DeLombard
  • Belko, The Triumph of the Antebellum Free Trade Movement, by James L. Huston
  • Bell, California Crucible: The Forging of Modern American Liberalism, by Allen Matusow
  • Bellin and Mielke, eds., Native Acts: Indian Performance, 1603–1832, by Scott Stevens
  • Bennett, One World, Big Screen: Hollywood, the Allies, and World War II, by Robert Fyne
  • Bickham, The Weight of Vengeance: The United States, the British Empire, and the War of 1812, by Nicole Eustace
  • Biondi, The Black Revolution on Campus, by Derrick White
  • Blum and Harvey, The Color of Christ: The Son of God and the Saga of Race in America, by James H. Moorhead
  • Bolster, The Mortal Sea: Fishing the Atlantic in the Age of Sail, by John McNeill
  • Brandwein, Rethinking the Judicial Settlement of Reconstruction, by Michael A. Ross
  • Breslaw, Lotions, Potions, Pills, and Magic: Health Care in Early America, by Simon Finger
  • Bridges, Donn Piatt: Gadfly of the Gilded Age, by Mark Wahlgren Summers
  • Bronfen, Specters of War: Hollywood’s Engagement with Military Conflict, by Tony Shaw
  • Brown, John McKinley and the Antebellum Supreme Court: Circuit Riding in the Old Southwest, by Alfred L. Brophy
  • Brown, In Heaven as It Is on Earth: Joseph Smith and the Early Mormon Conquest of Death, by Jan Shipps
  • Buccola, The Political Thought of Frederick Douglass: In Pursuit of American Liberty, by Celeste-Marie Bernier
  • Burgin, The Great Persuasion: Reinventing Free Markets since the Depression, by Bevan Sewell
  • Butler, Across God’s Frontiers: Catholic Sisters in the American West, 1850–1920, by James M. Woods
  • Cecelski, The Fire of Freedom: Abraham Galloway and the Slaves’ Civil War, by Kent A. McConnell
  • Chang, Pacific Connections: The Making of the U.S.-Canadian Borderlands, by Carlos A. Schwantes
  • Charles, The fbi’s Obscene File: J. Edgar Hoover and the Bureau’s Crusade against Smut, by Leigh Ann Wheeler
  • Cohen, Reconstructing the Campus: Higher Education and the American Civil War, by W. Bruce Leslie
  • Cooper, We Have the War upon Us: The Onset of the Civil War, November 1860–April 1861, by Gary J. Kornblith
  • Costigliola, Roosevelt’s Lost Alliances: How Personal Politics Helped Start the Cold War, by Alan Brinkley
  • Crespino, Strom Thurmond’s America, by Joseph E. Lowndes
  • Davidson, Whittaker, Ashurst-McGee, and Jensen, eds., The Joseph Smith Papers: Histories, vol. 1; Joseph Smith Histories, 1832–1844, by Kenneth P Minkema
  • Davidson, Jensen, and Whittaker, eds., The Joseph Smith Papers: Histories, vol. 2; Assigned Histories, 1831–1847, by Kenneth P Minkema
  • de la Croix, Chicago Whispers: A History of lgbt Chicago before Stonewall, by Timothy Stewart-Winter
  • Dorman, Hell of a Vision: Regionalism and the Modern American West, by Elliott West
  • Dyer, Natural Law and the Antislavery Constitutional Tradition, by H. Robert Baker
  • Eames, Rustic Warriors: Warfare and the Provincial Soldier on the New England Frontier, 1689–1748, by Richard Melvoin
  • Eldridge, Chronicles of a Two-Front War: Civil Rights and Vietnam in the African American Press, by Michael S. Foley
  • Elkind, How Local Politics Shape Federal Policy: Business, Power, and the Environment in Twentieth-Century Los Angeles, by Keith Revell
  • Enright, The Maximum of Wilderness: The Jungle in the American Imagination, by Gary Kroll
  • Eustace, 1812: War and the Passions of Patriotism, by Carroll Smith-Rosenberg
  • Farr, Blackfoot Redemption: A Blood Indian’s Story of Murder, Confinement, and Imperfect Justice, by Theodore Binnema
  • Faulkner and Parker, eds., Interconnections: Gender and Race in American History, by Louise Michele Newman
  • Finger, The Contagious City: The Politics of Public Health in Early Philadelphia, by Sarah Fatherly
  • Fluhman, “A Peculiar People”: Anti-Mormonism and the Making of Religion in Nineteenth-Century America, by Matthew J. Grow
  • Gallagher, Black Women and Politics in New York City, by Joshua B. Guild
  • Gallagher and Shelden, eds., A Political Nation: New Directions in Mid-nineteenth-century American Political History, by Michael William Pfau
  • Gambone, Small Wars: Low-Intensity Threats and the American Response since Vietnam, by Jeremy Kuzmarov
  • Gavin, Nuclear Statecraft: History and Strategy in America’s Atomic Age, by Joseph M. Siracusa
  • Genetin-Pilawa, Crooked Paths to Allotment: The Fight over Federal Indian Policy after the Civil War, by Valerie Sherer Mathes
  • Gifford and Williams, eds., The Right Side of the Sixties: Reexamining Conservatism’s Decade of Transformation, by Elizabeth Tandy Shermer
  • Giglio, Call Me Tom: The Life of Thomas F. Eagleton, by E. Stanly Godbold Jr.
  • Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists: Fighting for Emancipation in the War for Independence, by Daniel C. Littlefield
  • Gillespie, Katharine and R. J. Reynolds: Partners of Fortune in the Making of the New South, by Bruce W. Eelman
  • Glasson, Mastering Christianity: Missionary Anglicanism and Slavery in the Atlantic World, by Dee E. Andrews
  • Glenn, Jack Tar’s Story: The Autobiographies and Memoirs of Sailors in Antebellum America, by John H. Schroeder
  • Goetz, The Baptism of Early Virginia: How Christianity Created Race, by Richard Bailey
  • Gold, An Exemplary Whig: Edward Kent and the Whig Disposition in American Politics and Law, by Michael J. Connolly
  • Goldstein and Greenberg, eds., A Perfect Fit: The Garment Industry and American Jewry, 1860–1960, by Susan Roth Breitzer
  • Gorman, The Emergence of International Society in the 1920s, by Thomas Bender
  • Grant, Political Antislavery Discourse and American Literature of the 1850s, by Sandra Harbert Petrulionis
  • Gray, A Clamor for Equality: Emergence and Exile of Californio Activist Francisco P. Ramírez, by Harold Brackman
  • Grisinger, The Unwieldy American State: Administrative Politics since the New Deal, by David H. Rosenbloom
  • Hackworth, Faith Based: Religious Neoliberalism and the Politics of Welfare in the United States, by Jessica I. Elfenbein
  • Hamlin, Crossroads at Clarksdale: The Black Freedom Struggle in the Mississippi Delta after World War II, by Nan Elizabeth Woodruff
  • Harper, ed., Through a Glass Darkly: Contested Notions of Baptist Identity, by William R. Glass
  • Harris, The Ocean Hill–Brownsville Conflict: Intellectual Struggles between Blacks and Jews at Mid-century, by Cheryl Greenberg
  • Hayes-Bautista, El Cinco de Mayo: An American Tradition, by José M. Alamillo
  • Herman, Rim Country Exodus: A Story of Conquest, Renewal, and Race in the Making, by William J. Bauer
  • Hirt, The Wired Northwest: The History of Electric Power, 1870s–1970s, by Jay L. Brigham
  • Hochschild, Weaver, and Burch, Creating a New Racial Order: How Immigration, Multiracialism, Genomics, and the Young Can Remake Race in America, by Matt Wray
  • Hoeller, From Gift to Commodity: Capitalism and Sacrifice in Nineteenth-Century American Fiction, by David Dowling
  • Holscher, Religious Lessons: Catholic Sisters and the Captured Schools Crisis in New Mexico, by William Issel
  • Holz, The Birth Control Clinic in a Marketplace World, by Keith Cassidy
  • Isaac, Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences from Parsons to Kuhn, by Martin Halliwell
  • Jeansonne, The Life of Herbert Hoover: Fighting Quaker, 1928–1933, by Vincent Gaddis
  • Jensen, Oregon’s Doctor to the World: Esther Pohl Lovejoy and a Life in Activism, by Barbara Winslow
  • Jewett, Science, Democracy, and the American University: From the Civil War to the Cold War, by Daniel J. Wilson
  • Jones, Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics, by W. Elliot Brownlee
  • Kahrl, The Land Was Ours: African American Beaches from Jim Crow to the Sunbelt South, by Hasan Kwame Jeffries
  • Kantrowitz, More than Freedom: Fighting for Black Citizenship in a White Republic, 1829–1889, by Richard J. M. Blackett
  • Kaufman, The Post-presidency from Washington to Clinton, by Peri E. Arnold
  • Kennedy, Engineers of Victory: The Problem Solvers Who Turned the Tide in the Second World War, by Andrew N. Buchanan
  • Knaff, Beyond Rosie the Riveter: Women of World War II in American Popular Graphic Art, by Meghan K. Winchell
  • Knighton, Idle Threats: Men and the Limits of Productivity in 19th-Century America, by Dana D. Nelson
  • Kobrin, ed., Chosen Capital: The Jewish Encounter with American Capitalism, by Michael R. Cohen
  • Körner, Miller, and Smith, eds., America Imagined: Explaining the United States in Nineteenth-Century Europe and Latin America, by Mischa Honeck
  • LaCombe, Political Gastronomy: Food and Authority in the English Atlantic World, by Margaret Williamson Huber
  • Lasner, High Life: Condo Living in the Suburban Century, by Daniel J. Monti Jr.
  • Lengel, ed., A Companion to George Washington, by Jeffry H. Morrison
  • Levy, Frontier Figures: American Music and the Mythology of the American West, by Kenneth J. Bindas
  • Logevall, Embers of War: The Fall of an Empire and the Making of America’s Vietnam, by Stein Tonnesson
  • Long, Doctoring Freedom: The Politics of African American Medical Care in Slavery and Emancipation, by Steven M. Stowe
  • Mashaw, Creating the Administrative Constitution: The Lost One Hundred Years of American Administrative Law, by Stephen J. Rockwell
  • Masur, Lincoln’s Hundred Days: The Emancipation Proclamation and the War for the Union, by Stacy Pratt McDermott
  • McCool, ed., The Most Fundamental Right: Contrasting Perspectives on the Voting Rights Act, by Robert W. Speel
  • McCoy, Torture and Impunity: The U.S. Doctrine of Coercive Interrogation, by Robert M. Pallitto
  • McCraw, The Founders and Finance: How Hamilton, Gallatin, and Other Immigrants Forged a New Economy, by Howard Bodenhorn
  • Messer-Kruse, The Haymarket Conspiracy: Transatlantic Anarchist Networks, by Robert Justin Goldstein
  • Michelmore, Tax and Spend: The Welfare State, Tax Politics, and the Limits of American Liberalism, by Mark H. Leff
  • Midtrød, The Memory of All Ancient Customs: Native American Diplomacy in the Colonial Hudson Valley, by Paul Otto
  • Morgan and Davies, eds., From Sit-Ins to sncc: The Student Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, by Jeffrey A. Turner
  • Nelson, A Nation of Deadbeats: An Uncommon History of America’s Financial Disasters, by Troy Rondinone
  • O’Connell, Underdogs: The Making of the Modern Marine Corps, by Graham A. Cosmas
  • Oliver, To Touch the Face of God: The Sacred, the Profane, and the American Space Program, 1957–1975, by Matthew H. Hersch
  • Ortiz, ed., Veterans’ Policies, Veterans’ Politics: New Perspectives on Veterans in the Modern United States, by David A. Gerber
  • Orvell, The Death and Life of Main Street: Small Towns in American Memory, Space, and Community, by Kathryn H. Fuller-Seeley
  • Peace, A Call to Conscience: The Anti–Contra War Campaign, by Toby Glenn Bates
  • Peretti, The Leading Man: Hollywood and the Presidential Image, by Emilie E. Raymond
  • Phillips-Fein and Zelizer, eds., What’s Good for Business: Business and American Politics since World War II, by James Hoopes
  • Plascencia, Disenchanting Citizenship: Mexican Migrants and the Boundaries of Belonging, by Marc Simon Rodriguez
  • Polsky, Elusive Victories: The American Presidency at War, by John Prados
  • Rabban, Law’s History: American Legal Thought and the Transatlantic Turn to History, by Herbert Hovenkamp
  • Rakove, Kennedy, Johnson, and the Nonaligned World, by Matthew Jones
  • Ramage and Watkins, Kentucky Rising: Democracy, Slavery, and Culture from the Early Republic to the Civil War, by Benjamin Fitzpatrick
  • Ramey, Child Care in Black and White: Working Parents and the History of Orphanages, by Jennifer Trost
  • Rice, Reinhold Niebuhr and His Circle of Influence, by David A. Hollinger
  • Roediger and Esch, The Production of Difference: Race and the Management of Labor in U.S. History, by Chris Rhomberg
  • Roll, The Hopkins Touch: Harry Hopkins and the Forging of the Alliance to Defeat Hitler, by Alan Brinkley
  • Roman, Opposing Jim Crow: African Americans and the Soviet Indictment of U.S. Racism, 1928–1937, by James G. Ryan
  • Roper, The Magnificent Mays: A Biography of Benjamin Elijah Mays, by Peter F. Lau
  • Ruble, The Gospel of Freedom and Power: Protestant Missionaries in American Culture after World War II, by Emily S. Rosenberg
  • Sandweiss, The Day in Its Color: Charles Cushman’s Photographic Journey through a Vanishing America, by Stephanie L. Hawkins
  • Sarna, When General Grant Expelled the Jews, by Joan Waugh
  • Sbardellati, J. Edgar Hoover Goes to the Movies: The fbi and the Origins of Hollywood’s Cold War, by Steven J. Ross
  • Scheer, ed., Women and the Texas Revolution, by Alison M. Parker
  • Schorr, The Colorado Doctrine: Water Rights, Corporations, and Distributive Justice on the American Frontier, by John Shurts
  • Self, All in the Family: The Realignment of American Democracy since the 1960s, by Joseph E. Lowndes
  • Sewell, Women and the Everyday City: Public Space in San Francisco, 1890–1915, by Edie Sparks
  • Shields, Freedom in a Slave Society: Stories from the Antebellum South, by Arthur Riss
  • Sides, ed., Post-ghetto: Reimagining South Los Angeles, by Lawrence B. de Graaf
  • Skemp, The Making of a Patriot: Benjamin Franklin at the Cockpit, by Barbara B. Oberg
  • Skotnes, A New Deal for All? Race and Class Struggles in Depression-Era Baltimore, by W. Roger Biles
  • Spickard, ed., Race and Immigration in the United States: New Histories, by Elliott Robert Barkan
  • Squire, The Evolution of American Legislatures: Colonies, Territories, and States, 1619–2009, by Gerald Gamm
  • Sterne, MP3: The Meaning of a Format, by Joe Schloss
  • Stroud, Nature Next Door: Cities and Trees in the American Northeast, by Albert G. Way
  • Szalay, Hip Figures: A Literary History of the Democratic Party, by Bill Mullen
  • Teed, A Revolutionary Conscience: Theodore Parker and Antebellum America, by Dean Grodzins
  • Tonkovich, The Allotment Plot: Alice C. Fletcher, E. Jane Gay, and Nez Perce Survivance, by Adrea Lawrence
  • Trent, The Manliest Man: Samuel G. Howe and the Contours of Nineteenth-Century American Reform, by Robert K. Nelson
  • Treu, Signs, Streets, and Storefronts: A History of Architecture and Graphics along America’s Commercial Corridors, by John A. Jakle
  • Tutino, ed., Mexico and Mexicans in the Making of the United States, by David G. Gutierrez
  • Umbach, The Last Neighborhood Cops: The Rise and Fall of Community Policing in New York Public Housing, by D. Bradford Hunt
  • Van Dyke, Americans and Macao: Trade, Smuggling, and Diplomacy on the South China Coast, by John Haddad
  • Vaught, The Farmers’ Game: Baseball in Rural America, by George B. Kirsch
  • Wadewitz, The Nature of Borders: Salmon, Boundaries, and Bandits on the Salish Sea, by Carmel Finley
  • Wadsworth and Wiegand, Right Here I See My Own Books: The Woman’s Building Library at the World’s Columbian Exposition, by TJ Boisseau
  • Wang, The Politics of Voter Suppression: Defending and Expanding Americans’ Right to Vote, by Chris Danielson
  • Webb, Marlborough’s America, by Jeremy Black
  • Westwick, ed., Blue Sky Metropolis: The Aerospace Century in Southern California, by Dominick A. Pisano
  • Whelehan, The Dynamiters: Irish Nationalism and Political Violence in the Wider World, 1867–1900, by Kerby Miller
  • Wills, George Henry Thomas: As True as Steel, by Jeffrey S. Prushankin
  • Woeste, Henry Ford’s War on Jews and the Legal Battle against Hate Speech, by Samuel Walker
  • Wolcott, Race, Riots, and Roller Coasters: The Struggle over Segregated Recreation in America, by Julia Kirk Blackwelder
  • Wolf-Meyer, The Slumbering Masses: Sleep, Medicine, and Modern American Life, by Edward Slavishak
  • Wyss, English Letters and Indian Literacies: Reading, Writing, and New England Missionary Schools, 1750–1830, by Linford Fisher

Digital History Reviews

  • Teach US History, by Rachel G. Ragland (p. 610) Read online >
  • H.S.I.: Historical Scene Investigation, by Jason L. Endacott (p. 611) Read online >
  • The Salem Witchcraft Site, by Benjamin C. Ray (p. 612) Read online >
  • Maps of Liberia, 1830—1970; and The Liberian Letters, by Eric Burin (p. 613) Read online >
  • WTO History Project, by Patrick F. Gillham (p. 615) Read online >


Recent Scholarship

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cover image

On the cover:

Galen Fisher is shown with Japanese students in Tokyo circa 1917. The formal clothing and square caps were common among Japanese students at Tokyo University and Waseda University. The kimono-clad man on the right was a student at Tokyo University and wears a similar cap. Courtesy Davis family. See Sarah Griffith, “‘Where We Can Battle for the Lord and Japan’: The Development of Liberal Protestant Antiracism before World War II,” 429.

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